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«An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones) by Wojciech Staregal (Natal Museum, P. B. 9070, 3200 ...»

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Ann. Natal Mus. Vol. 33(2) Pages 271-336 Pietermaritzburg October, 1992

An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the

Phalangiidae (Opiliones)


Wojciech Staregal

(Natal Museum, P. B. 9070, 3200 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa)


A check-list of all known Afrotropical harvestmen, with exception of the family Phalangiidae, is

provided. The following taxonomic changes are made: 28 generic and 45 specific synonymies, 37 new combinations and 3 new names.

Generic synonymies: Cryptobunus Lawrence, 1931 = Arnatola Lawrence, 1931; Flavonuncia Lawrence, 1959 = Hovanuncia Lawrence, 1959; Spinirnontia Roewer, 1914, Tanalaius Roewer, 1914 & Triacurnontia Roewer, 1914 = Acurnontia Loman, 1898 (all Triaenonychidae); Arnbolotsca Roewer, 1949 = Erecanana Strand, 1911 (Erecananidae); Argobba Roewer, 1935 & Harsadia Roewer, 1935 = Arnhara Pavesi, 1897; Assiniana Roewer, 1914 & Aburitius Roewer, 1935 = Sassandria Roewer, 1912; Coelobunus Loman, 1902 = Dicoryphus Loman, 1902; Faradjea Roewer, 1950 = Ereala Roewer, 1950; Gobabisia Roewer, 1940 = Narnutonia Lawrence, 1931; Monorhabdiurn Loman, 1902, Metachilon Roewer, 1923, Parachilon Roewer, 1923, Bindercola Roewer, 1935, Tsadsea Roewer, 1935, Acanfhocoryphus Roewer, 1953, Sangalkarnia Roewer, 1953, Villersiella Roewer, 1953 & Kobacoryphus Roewer, 1961 all = Chilon Sorensen, 1896; Othrnar Roewer, 1935 = Orsirnonia Roewer, 1935; Phezilbus Roewer, 1935 = Sidarna Pavesi, 1895; Pseudoacaca Caporiacco, 1949 = Acaca Roewer, 1935; Pungoiella Roewer, 1914 & Pygoselenca Roewer, 1953 = Pungoica Roewer, 1914;

Tengelinia Roewer, 1935 = Binderella Roewer, 1935 (all Assamiidae).

Specific synonymies: Acurnontia lornani Roewer, 1914, Spinirnontia lornani Roewer, 1914 & Triacurnontia lornani Roewer, 1914 = Acurnontia arrnata Loman, 1898; Adaeulurn coxidens Lawrence, 1931 = Adaeulurn godfreyi Lawrence, 1931; Adaeurn brincki Kauri, 1961 = Adaeurn capense (Roewer, 1914); Ceratornontia hewitti Lawrence, 1931 = Ceratornontia cheliplus Roewer, 1931; Crytobunus silvicolus Lawrence, 1937 = Arnatola setifernur (Lawrence, 1931); Tanalaius alluaudi Roewer, 1914 = Acurnontia pococki Roewer, 1914; Triacurnontia centralis Lawrence, 1959 = Acurnontia spinifrons (Roewer, 1914); Triacurnontia nigra perinetensis Lawrence, 1959 = Acurnontia nigra (Lawrence, 1959);

Conornrna annobornurn Roewer, 1949 = Conornrna principea Roewer, 1949; Erecanana bicolor Roewer, 1915, Erecanana verrucosa Roewer, 1949, Erecanana ruandana Roewer, 1949 & Erecanana chelispina Roewer, 1950 = Erecanana typus (Sorensen, 1910); Palpipes horridus Sorensen, 1910 = Erecanana rnordax (Sorensen, 1910); Paribalonius birnaculatus duplex Roewer, 1923 = Paribalonius inscriptus (Loman, 1902); Arnasis accentuatus Sorensen, 1910, Arnasis rnesoleucus Sorensen, 1910, Arnasis quadricornis Sorensen, 1910 & Hypoxestus obscurus Roewer, 1912 = Hypoxestus levis Loman, '1902; Assiniana reticulata Roewer, 1914, Aburitius inerrnis Roewer, 1935 & Aburitius yap0 Roewer, 1935 = Sassandria bicolor Roewer, 1912; Chilon nobilis Sorensen, 1896 & Villersiella coxalis Roewer, 1953 = Chilon scaber Sorensen, 1896; Chilon undulatus Sorensen, 1896, Monorhabdiurn singulare Loman, 1902, Chilon arrnatus Roewer, 1912, Chilon ferrugineus Roewer, 1912, Monorhabdiurn echinarurn Roewer, 1912, Chilon atroluteus Roewer, 1916, Tsadsea picta Roewer, 1935, Parachilon bistriatus Roewer, 1940 & Parachilon bicolor Roewer, 1942 = Chilon robusrus Sorensen, 1896;

Coelobunus fuscus Roewer, 1912 = Dicoryphus rnelanacanthus (Loman, 1902); Eupodauchenius marginatus Roewer, 1912 = Eupodauchenius luteocruciatus (Loman, 1910); Faradjea schoutedeni Roewer, 1950 = Ereala arrnata Roewer, 1950; Harsadia spinosa Roewer, 1935 = Arnhara grata Pavesi, 1897; Parazalrnoxis roweri Caporiacco, 1949 & Hypoxestus holrni Goodnight & Goodnight, 1959 = Parazalrnoxis africana Roewer, 1913; Phezilbus spiniger Roewer, 1935 = Sidarna abessinica Roewer, Present address: Institute of Biology, University of Warsaw, P. 0.Box 109, Biaiystok, Poland.

272 ANNALS OF THE NATAL MUSEUM, VOL. 33(2) 1992 1912; Pungoica decorata Lawrence, 1947 & Pygoselenca albisignata Roewer, 1953 = Pungoica bifurcata (Roewer, 1914); Tengeliniaparadoxa Roewer, 1935 = Binderella bistriata Roewer, 1935.

New combinations: Cryptobunus armatus Lawrence, 1938, Cryptobunus durbanicus Lawrence, 1937, Cryptobunus maritimus Lawrence, 1937, Cryptobunus setifemur Lawrence, 1931 & Cryptobunus unidentatus Lawrence, 1937 transferred to Amatola Lawrence, 1931; Spinimontia capitata Lawrence, 1959, Tanalaius flavispinus Lawrence, 1959, Tanalaius hystrix Lawrence, 1959, Tanalaius milloti Lawrence, 1959, Triacumontia alluaudi Roewer, 1914, Triacumontia nigra Lawrence, 1959, Triacumontia soerenseni Roewer, 1914, Triacumontia spinifrons Roewer, 1914, Triacumontia venator Roewer, 1931, Triaenomontia hispida Roewer, 1914 & Triaenomontia horrida Roewer, 1914 transferred to Acumontia Loman, 1898; Ambolotsca remyi Roewer, 1949 transferred to Erecanana Strand, 1911;

Acanthocoryphus laevituber Roewer, 1953, Acanthophrysella horrida Roewer, 1935, Kobacoryphus royi Roewer, 1961, Sangalkamia villiersi Roewer, 1953 & Scotolemon salebrosa Karsch, 1879 transferred to Chilon Sorensen, 1910; Argobba nigrescens Roewer, 1935 transferred to Amhara Pavesi, 1897;

Cuelobunus ater Lawrence, 1962, Coelobunus melanacanthus Loman, 1902 & Metarhabdopygus jeanneli Roewer, 1913 transferred to Dicoryphus Loman, 1902; Gobabisia wuehlischi Roewer, 1940 transferred to Namutonia Lawrence, 1931; Othmar gracillimus Roewer, 1935 transferred to Orsimonia Roewer, 1935; Pseudacaca liobuniformis Caporiacco, 1949 transferred to Acaca Roewer, 1935; Pungoiella bifurcata Roewer, 1914 transferred to Pungoica Roewer, 1914; Acrobiantes littoralis Lawrence, 1959, Acrobiantes pardalis Lawrence, 1959, Biantes milloti Fage, 1946, Biantes tenebrosus Lawrence, 1959 & Hovabiantes pauliani Lawrence, 1959 transferred to Hinzuanius Karsch, 1880; Spinibiantes insulanus Roewer, 1949 transferred to Metabiantes Roewer, 1915.

New names: Acumontia roeweri pro Triacumontia pococki Roewer, 1914 nec Acumontia pococki Roewer, 1914; Hypoxestus roeweri pro Randilea obscura Roewer, 1952 nec Hypoxestus obscurus Roewer, 1912; Metabiantes lawrencei pro Metabiantes obscurus Lawrence, 1962 nec Kauri, 1961.

Family status has been given to Erecananidae and Samoidae, previously regarded as subfamilies in Phalangodidae.


The first publication concerning harvestmen of Africa south of the Sahara appeared over 150 years ago (Guerin-Meneville 1838). This was followed much later by the papers of F. Karsch, P. Pavesi, E. Simon, W. Sorensen, J. C. C.

Loman and R. I. Pocock in the last three decades of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries. The contributions of these authors, valuable as they were, provided only fragmentary knowledge of the fauna. The period is aptly summed up by Loman (1898: 515): '... schreckliche Kenntniswiiste...' with '... wenigen Oasen...'. Noticeable progress was made with the numerous papers of C. F.

Roewer (starting from 1912) and R. F. Lawrence (from 1931). Further descriptions were also provided by S. Hirst, H. J. Hansen, L. di Caporiacco, L.

Fage, C.J. & M. L. Goodnight, C. Juberthie (1969) and last, but not least, H.

Kauri, whose last two papers (1961 1985) contributed not only descriptions of numerous new taxa but also some revisions - the latter previously rare in studies of Afrotropical harvestmen. Further revisionary work, although not necessarily restricted to the African fauna, followed in papers by J. A. Rosas Costa (1950), C. Juberthie (1970 1971), W. A. Shear (1980 1985), all dealing with the suborder Cyphophthalmi, Shear (1975) on Caddidae, and by Starega (1984) with Phalangiidae. The last mentioned paper contains a catalogue of the Afrotropical species, so the family is now omitted to avoid repetition.

The number of nominal species described from the Afrotropical Region presently stands at 707 with the largest families being: Assamiidae (sensu lato) (291 species), Triaenonychidae ( I S ), Phalangiidae (84), Biantidae (81) and 273


'Phalangodidae' (43); the remaining 10 families are small, with between 1 and 13 species.

The most thoroughly studied and best known fauna is undoubtedly that of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) with 158 species (+ 1 doubtful), excluding the Phalangiidae. The fauna here is not only the richest in respect of species number, but also already partly revised or reviewed. Significant numbers of nominal species have also been described (or recorded) from Zaire (136 species), + 1 doubtful), Madagascar (54), Cameroon (47) and the Ivory Tanzania (77 Coast (37 species). Between 11 and 20 species are known from Ghana, Togo, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Isl.), S2o Tome and Principe, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Angola, Mozambique and Seychelles. Fewer than ten species are recorded from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Chad, Gabon, Congo, Burundi, MalaGi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, ~ r a n s k e i, Ciskei, South Yemen (Socotra Isl.), Mascarenes and Comoros. No species are known from Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Benin, Somalia, Zambia, Venda and Bophuthatswana.

This check-list is presented as a useful starting point for further revisionary studies of the Afrotropical harvestmen. It includes a considerable number of taxonomic changes: 28 generic and 45 specific synonymies, 37 new combinations and 3 new names. They result from work during my stay in the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt (May - October 1987) and subsequently at the Natal Museum (October 1987 - November 1989). In Frankfurt I mainly studied genera in the Assamiidae family-complex from Ethiopia and West Africa. In Pietermaritzburg a large variety of families, chiefly from the southern part of Africa, were studied. Several papers are already in press and others are in different stages of preparation.

Some comments concerning the arrangement of the text should be given to avoid confusion. The families are largely arranged in a suggested phylogenetical sequence, but suborders have been omitted. Subfamily groups have also been omitted, with the exception of the Triaenonychidae. The genera (and species) are listed in alphabetical order. The type species of every genus is marked with an asterisk (*). Citation of the original description is omitted when the original combination has been accepted. Subsequent taxonomic changes are cited, and those papers dealing with new material and new distributional data are numbered (starting from 2: 1 always refers to the original description). Other citations previously provided in the literature (eg. in Roewer 1923 1949b or Kauri 1961) are omitted. Material not previously recorded is listed with an indication of the museum where it is stored (with or without an accession number) - instead of a reference citation. This is specially the case for South African museums and the State Museum in Windhoek, Namibia (SMW). The countries are normally arranged starting from the West and North but the localities within the countries mostly at random, because it was not always possible to find them on maps. The spelling of locality names may, for the same reason, not always be correct. For every species the institution(s) housing the type material is indicated. Type 274 ANNALS OF THE NATAL MUSEUM, VOL. 33(2) 1992 material seen by me is marked with an asterisk (*). The following is a list of

institutions with Afrotropical type material:

AMNH - American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA - type material of 5 species.

BMNH - British Museum (Natural History), Department of Zoology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K. - type material of 24 species.

HNHM - Termeszettudominyi Muzeum ~ l l a t t a r a,Baross utca 13, H-1088 Budapest - type material of 1 species.

MCSN - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 'Giacomo Doria', Via Brigata Liguria 9,1-16121 Genova - type material of 10 species;

MHNG - MusCum d'Histoire Naturelle, Departement des Arthropodes, Case

postale 434, CH-1211 Gen6ve 6 - type material of 1 species:

MNHN - MusCum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire des Arthropodes, 61 rue de Buffon, F-75231 Paris - type material of 100 species;

MRAC - Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Leuvensesleenweg 13, B-1980 Tervuren - type material of 126 species;

MWNH - Museum Wiesbaden, Zoologische Sektion, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 2, D-6200 Wiesbaden - type material of 3 species;

MZLU - Lunds Universitets Zoologiska Museum, Helgonav. 3, S-223 62 Lund - type material of 26 species;

MZUF - Museo Zoologico 'La Specola', Via Romana 17, 1-50125 Firenze type material of 3 species;

NCAP - Nation21 Collection of Arachnids, Plant Protection Research Institute, Priv. Bag X134, Pretoria 0001, R.S.A. - type material of 1 species;

NHRS - Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sektionen for entomologi, S-104 05 Stockholm - type material of 27 species.

NMBA - National Museum, Department of Entomology, P.O. Box 266, Bloemfontein 9300, R.S.A. -type material of 1 species;

NMSA - Natal Museum, Department of Arachnology, Priv. Bag 9070, Pietermaritzburg 3200, R.S.A. - type material of 75 species;

SAMC - South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, R.S.A. type material of 61 species.

- Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Senckenberg SMF anlage 25, D-6000 Frankfurt a. M. 1 - type material of 265 species the world's biggest collection.

TMSA - Transvaal Museum, Department of Lower Vertebrates and Invertebrates, P.O. Box 413, Pretoria 0001, R.S.A. - type material of 2 species.

UZIU - Universitets Zoologiska Institut, Villav. 9, Uppsala, Sweden - type material of 6 species.




ZMAN - Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, Zoologisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Plantage Middenlaan 64, NL-1018 D H Amsterdam - type material of 5 species;

ZMHB - Museum fiir Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitat, Zoologisches Museum, Invalidenstr. 43,D-1040 Berlin - type material of 29 species;

ZMUB - Zoologisk Museum, Bergens Universitet, Museplats 3, N-5000 Bergen - type material of 1 species;

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