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«© 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as ...»

Chapter One

Historical Overview of Massage

© 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license

distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

What is Massage?

• Manual or mechanical manipulation of the

body’s soft tissues

• Involves movements such as pressing, rolling

and tapping to evoke a therapeutic response in the recipient © 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Benefits of Massage

• Increases circulation of blood and lymph

• Relaxes and lengthens muscles

• Relieves pain and spasms

• Restores metabolic balance

• Improves range of motion

• Includes many other physical and mental benefits © 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Massage in Ancient Times

• Touch is a natural human response to relieve pain and discomfort

• Evidence of massage in ancient China, Japan, India, Greece and Rome

• Chinese and Indian medicine have included massage for 3000 years © 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Chinese Anmo Techniques • 3000 B.C. – Records of massage in China

• Over many years, techniques improved through a process called anmo

• Specific points were massaged for relief

• Massage in modern China is called tui-na © 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Japanese Tsubo and Shiatsu

• A.D. 5000 – Anmo method entered Japan from China

• Location of points remained similar

• Tsubo – points pressed to stimulate circulation of fluids and qi (life force)

• Shiatsu – points pressed to stimulate nerves

–  –  –

• Massage practiced in India for over 3000 years

• Knowledge of massage came from China

• Tschanpua (massage at the bath) was an important part of daily life • 1800 B.C. – Ayur-Veda (Art of Life) written • 300 B.C. – The Laws of Manu written

–  –  –

• Massage spread to Europe from the East well before 300 B.C.

• Asclepius (6th century B.C.) combined exercise and massage to create gymnastics

• Founded first gymnasium to treat disease and promote health

–  –  –

• Hippocrates, a physician, called “Father of Medicine”

• Developed anatripsis – rubbing a part upwards

• Understood effects of massage and thought all physicians should train in massage

• Created the Hippocratic Oath, which is still used today

–  –  –

• Acquired concept from Greeks

• Retained idea of gymnastics and anatripsis

• Public baths available to both rich and poor

• Massage believed to improve circulation

• Galen, Greek physician to the Roman emperor and the gladiators, used massage

–  –  –

• A.D. 180 (Fall of Rome): Popularity of bathing and massage diminished

• A.D. 476-1450 (Dark Ages): Fear, religion and wars minimized importance of self

• Massage abandoned as medical treatment

• Massage associated with magic and Satan

–  –  –

• Greco-Roman culture was preserved by the spread of Islam to Persia, Asia and Africa

• Two Persian writers – Razi wrote an encyclopedia of medical practices – Avicenna wrote Canon of Medicine

–  –  –

• The Renaissance (1450-1600)

• Medical fields embraced massage again

• Massage was taught in schools of higher learning with anatomy, physiology and pathology

–  –  –

• John Grosvenor (1742-1823): Chirurgy

• Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839), called father of physical therapy and medical gymnastics

• Mathias Roth, physician, studied with Ling

• Roth treated Charles Fayette Taylor, a New York physician, who introduced massage to the United States

–  –  –

• Dr. Johann Georg Mezger (1839-1909), a Dutch physician, founded scientific massage

• Coined the terms used today: effleurage, petrissage, tapotement and massage

• In Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, physicians recommended massage

–  –  –

• Decline in scientific and medical use of massage

• Numerous abuses within the education and profession of massage were publicized

• Technical advances (electricity, vibrators) negatively impacted massage arts

–  –  –

• Emil Vodder – Manual Lymph Drainage

• Elizabeth Dicke – Bindegewebsmassage

• James Cyriax – Deep Transverse Friction

• Tappan’s Healing Massage Techniques and Beard’s Massage still used today

• Post-war rehabilitation for soldiers

–  –  –

• 1960s to today: rise in massage popularity

• Contributing factors – Increased cost of traditional medicine – Development of wellness model – Proven psychological benefits of touch – Chiropractic merging with massage

–  –  –

• Increase in number of massage schools

• AMTA created

• The Massage Therapy Journal published

• Increase in number of bodywork styles

–  –  –

• ABMP and IMA created

• Massage and Bodywork and The Massage Magazine emerged

• Ten U.S. states regulated massage

• Sports massage – 1984 Summer Olympics

• David Palmer developed chair massage

–  –  –

• Emphasis on massage research; grants available from NIH and NCCAM

• NCBTMB began administering the National Certification Examination

• State regulation of massage increased

• Third most common CAM modality used

–  –  –

• Continued research increases validity and acceptance of massage with the public

• More states regulating the profession and improving educational standards

• Increasing availability (spas, chiropractic, physical therapy, wellness clinics, gyms)

–  –  –

© 2011 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.



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