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«1516 – 2016 500 years of migration flows between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands A case study of ...»

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EMBASSY OF THE KINGDOM OF THE

NETHERLANDS FOR THE DOMINICAN

REPUBLIC AND HAITI

1516 – 2016

500 years of migration

flows between the

Dominican Republic and

the Caribbean part of the

Kingdom of the

Netherlands

A case study of intra- Caribbean

migration

Elsemieke de Boer

March 2016

Summary

Migration is a key theme in Caribbean history and remains of fundamental importance until today.

This report identifies some of the most considerable migration flows between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Curaçao, Aruba, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba1) over a period of 500 years: from 1516, when the first direct migration flow started, until today, 2016. The historical approach taken in this report has provided new research opportunities in terms of large-scale analysis. The first considerable migration flows emerged in the 19th century (and peaked around 1900) and the most frequent determinants throughout history for migration between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands have been economic circumstances Other key factors have been identity and political instability. Regarding consequences, migration often led to a considerable degree of assimilation and chain migration. Migration used to be oriented more towards the Dominican Republic, whereas nowadays it is more orientated towards the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Currently, the most considerable migration flows occur between the Dominican Republic and Curaçao and Sint Maarten, and to Aruba to a lesser extent. Whereas movement of people between the Dominican Republic and Curaçao has always been significant, the migration flow from and towards Sint Maarten is a more recent phenomenon.

Figure 1. The Dominican Republic, Curaçao, Aruba, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba in the Caribbean basin The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four autonomous countries: The Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao 1 and Sint Maarten.

The latter three are located in the Caribbean. Aruba is independent since 1986 and Curaçao and Sint Maarten since 2010. Three other Dutch islands in the Caribbean, Bonaire, Saba and Saint Eustatius are Dutch municipalities since 2010. In this report, the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands refers to Curacao, Aruba, Saint Martin, Bonaire, Saba and Saint Eustatius (Ministry of Foreign Affairs).

500 years of migration Key words: migration flows, intra-Caribbean migration, macro-scale historical analysis, periodization, neoclassical economic theory, Lee’s push and pull factors, network theory, determinants and consequences of migration, types of migration Preface Regional integration in the Caribbean has been at the centre of attention of regional politicians and intellectuals during the past decades. Integration is of interest in particular because it is expected to promote economic growth and increase political relevance in an international context. The embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for the Dominican Republic and Haiti in Santo Domingo has a key geographical position in the region and seeks to strengthen the ties between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. A memorandum of understanding is expected to be signed between the Dominican Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the near future.

Migration flows tie countries more closely together and play a key role in regional integration.

Although migration is a key theme, little research has been done on intra-Caribbean migration. This fact led to the creation of this research project: a macro-scale historical perspective on migration flows between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

This investigation goes all the way back to 1516, when the “first” direct migration flow between the present Dominican Republic and Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire took place. Since this first contact the islands have intensified their ties, in which migration has always played a key role.

Special thanks to the Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for the Dominican Republic and Haiti, Marijke van Drunen Littel, for her ideas, support and enthusiasm. I would like to thank Reinier Davina and Priscilla Verhoef, some of the best colleagues I could wish. Pilar Awad Baez shared so much knowledge and enthusiasm with me, and has been of great help in conducting the interviews. I would also like to thank all the people I was able to consult for expertise, in particular, Christel Monsanto, Rose Mary Allen, Josette Goldish, Jessica Roitman, Wim Klooster, Jan Piña, Erna Ethard, Carlos Abaunza, Willem Brouwer, Jan Adriaanse, Theo van den Elsen, Gerla Wijnbelt, Carles Roersch, Luis Brocker and last but not least, Peter Croes. The latter person lent me a wonderful book about the history of the oldest families of the Netherlands Antilles. Finally, special thanks to my amazing supervisor from Leiden University, Simanique Moody.

–  –  –

Summary Preface Table of contents Acronyms Introduction  Introduction and research objectives  Literature review  Theoretical framework and research methods  Report structure ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Part 1. History of global and Caribbean migration

–  –  –





……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Part 2. 1516-2016: Migration flows from the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Curaçao, Aruba and Sint Maarten and Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba) to the Dominican Republic 2.1. 1516: Forced labour migration from Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire to the Dominican Republic – The rise of the sugar industry on Hispaniola 2.2. 1800 – 1900: Labour migration of Sephardic Jews from Curaçao to the Dominican Republic – Economic opportunities and political and religious freedom

2.2. a. 1600 - 1800: Maritime connections - Willemstad and Santo Domingo

–  –  –

2.4. 1863: Labour migration from the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the Dominican Republic – The abolition of slavery ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Part 3. 1516-2016: Migration flows from the Dominican Republic to the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Curaçao, Aruba and Sint Maarten and Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba) 3.1. 1918 – 1985: Labour migration from the Dominican Republic to Curaçao and Aruba

–  –  –

3.2. 1940 – 1970: Political migration from the Dominican Republic to the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands – The consequences of Trujillo’s rule for

–  –  –

……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Part 4. Present: Migration flows between the Dominican Republic and The Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Curaçao, Aruba and Sint Maarten and Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba)

–  –  –

……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Discussion Conclusion Bibliography Appendix

–  –  –

ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States ADGH Academia de Genealogía y Heráldica AEP Adult Entertainment Policy

–  –  –

CARICOM The Caribbean Community and Common Market CARIFORUM The Forum of the Caribbean Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States CBG Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie CBS Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek COIN Centro de Orientación e Investigación Integral CSME Caribbean Single Market and Economy

–  –  –

DGM Dirección General de Migración ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ENI Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes FLACSO Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales FUNGLODE Fundación Global Democracia y Desarrollo IOM International Organisation of Migration

–  –  –

NAAM National Archaeological Anthropological Memory Management NGO Non-gouvernmental orgazation OBMICA Centro para Observación Migratoria y el Desarrollo Social en el Caribe OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECS Organization of Eastern Caribbean States ONE Oficina Nacional de Estadística PUCCM Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra UASD Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo

–  –  –

UNAPEC Universidad Acción Pro-Educación y Cultura UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNIBE Universidad Iberoamericana UNPHU Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña UTESA Universidad Tecnológica de Santiago

–  –  –

……………………………………………………………………………………….

Processes of globalization and integration have positioned migration at the centre of global discussions during the past decades. Migration flows have intensified at a rapid pace and tied countries more closely together. The new scale of migration has posed new challenges (Valdez et al.

XV; ECLAC 7). Figure 2 illustrates the intensification of migration flows between 1990 and 2010. In 2013, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) estimated the global migration stock2 at 247 million people. This was 3.4% of the world population and had an annual growth rate of 1.9% (Riveros 22). Although the Caribbean’s contribution to the global migration stock is small in absolute terms in comparison to other continents, it has one of the highest migration rates.

Figure 2. The global flow of people.

Left: 1990-1995. Right: 2005 – 2010. Yellow: Latin America, Red: North America, Orange: Africa, Light Green Europe, Purple: Former Soviet Union, Pink: West Asia, Blue: South Asia, Blue-green: East Asia, Green: South-East Asia (The Global flow of people) 2 The global migration stock: the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live 500 years of migration The Caribbean is a region that has been eminently characterized by intra-continental and intraregional migration throughout history and currently it has among the highest migration rates in the world. Intra-regional migration is of significant importance for many islands. Yet, too little is known about intra-Caribbean migration.

This report aims to contribute to a better understanding of intra-Caribbean migration by studying the history of migration flows between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands until present from a macro-scale historical perspective. The purpose of the report is three-fold. First, the most significant migration flows over the past 500 years will be identified. Consequently, the report will introduce each identified migration flow and elaborate on the main characteristics, in particular on the determinants (push and pull factors) and consequences.

Thirdly, an insight into current migration flows between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands will be provided and the present will be put into a historical and regional perspective. Consequently, it will be argued that labour opportunities have been the main driving force behind the migration flows between the Dominican Republic and that migration often led to a considerable degree of assimilation and chain migration. Moreover, migration used to be oriented more towards the Dominican Republic, whereas nowadays it is more orientated towards the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Currently, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, and Aruba to a lesser extent are the most popular destinations for migrants within the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The following part will put the theme of this report into an academic context.

Theoretical framework

Intra-Caribbean migration has received little attention in academic literature (Van Beek 21; Riveros 32-33; Hoetink 6). A comprehensive understanding of this theme struggles with considerable shortcomings in terms of coverage, completeness and reliability. As to the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it has either been studied in isolation or has received too little attention in overarching studies. Curaçao has been studied most extensively by scholars, both in isolation as relating to the Dominican Republic (Dinmohamed; Van der Sloot). Especially the arrivals of the Sephardic Jews to Curaçao (Monsanto; Goldish; Arbell; Sanchez Guerra) and the oil boom (Goede; Green) have been covered well. Also, the sex tourism industry in Curaçao and Sint Martin has received a fair amount of attention (Kempadoo; Kuiper). The majority of the academic 500 years of migration literature about Dominican migration focuses on the United States and Haiti (Fergusson). The best examples of studies that have addressed the linkages between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are those by Hoetink and Koetze. They have managed to provide valuable insights into migration and the multiple other historical linkages between the two.

As was shown in the part above, coverage of intra-Caribbean migration in literature appears limited.

Especially information on ties between the Dominican Republic and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is limited or non-existent. Therefore, this report will provide a new approach by taking a macro-scale historical perspective. Such an approach will give new insights into larger migration patterns, provide an overview and link the past with the present.



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