«Highly esteemed prospective delegates, I welcome you to the fourth annual edition of Kadikoy Anadolu Lisesi Model United Nations Conference, to be ...»
Highly esteemed prospective delegates,
I welcome you to the fourth annual edition of Kadikoy Anadolu Lisesi Model United Nations
Conference, to be held amongst June 28 – July 2, 2016. As I am writing these words, the
conference is 7 months away, however, as much as I am excited to meet you at our
historically enriched campus situated around one of the worlds’ most breath-taking regions,
KALMUN Executive Board and Secretariat is counting days to proceed to one of the most
challenging and self-indulging experiences of your lifetime, too.
Joint Crisis Committee will introduce a very unique occasion this year: the Spanish Civil War, taking place just before the Second World War is one of the least known but complex events of modern history.
Our aim as the both organization and academic team is to enlighten you with in-depth events and challenge you by reaching higher at any matter we can. For this reason, this study guide includes a brief introduction of Spanish Civil War to introduce the committee to those who are not familiar with the topic before applying. Howbeit, student officers of this very committee will prepare a more detailed study guide before the conference which will include a final version of the characters’ list you will see in the upcoming pages.
Hoping to meet you all in person this June in Istanbul.
Regards, Enes Subasi President of the Specialized Agencies 28.11.2015 1 | kalmun 2016 – joint crisis committee introduction study guide
SPANISH CIVIL WAR: THE SETTINGIn a longer historical perspective the Spanish Civil War amounts to the opening battle of World War II, perhaps the only time in living memory when the world confronted—in fascism and Nazism—something like unqualified evil. The men and women who understood this early on and who chose of their own free will to stand against fascism have thus earned a special status in history. Viewed internally, on the other hand, the Spanish Civil War was the culmination of a prolonged period of national political unrest—unrest in a country that was increasingly polarized and repeatedly unable to ameliorate the conditions of terrible poverty in which millions of its citizens lived. Spain was a country in which landless peasants cobbled together a bare subsistence living by following the harvests on vast, wealthy agricultural estates. The hierarchy of the Catholic Church, identifying more with wealthy landowners than with the Spanish people, was in full control of secondary education; education for women seemed to them unnecessary and universal literacy a danger rather than a goal. Divorce was illegal. The military, meanwhile, had come to see itself, rather melodramatically, as the only bulwark against civil disorder and as the ultimate guarantor of the core values of Spanish society.
When a progressive Popular Front government was elected in February 1936, with the promise of realistic land reformone of its key planks, conservative forces immediately gathered to plan resistance. The Spanish Left, meanwhile, celebrated the elections in a way that made conservative capitalists, military officers, and churchmen worried that much broader reform might begin. The coup was awaited.
The military rebellion took place on July 18, with the officers who organized it expecting a quick victory and a rapid takeover of the entire country. What the military did not anticipate was the determination of the Spanish people, who broke into barracks, took up arms, and crushed the rebellion in key areas like the cities of Madrid and Barcelona. It was at that point that the character of the struggle changed, for the military realized they were not going to win by fiat. Instead they faced a prolonged struggle against their own people and an uncertain outcome. They appealed to fascist dictatorships in Italy, Germany, and Portugal for assistance, and they soon began receiving both men and supplies from Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Antonio Salazar.2 https://www2.bc.edu/~heineman/maps/SpCW2.jpg http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/scw/overview.htm 2 | kalmun 2016 – joint crisis committee introduction study guide
THE NACIONALESOn 1 October 1936 Franco was formally recognised as Caudillo for the Spanish patria—the Spanish equvalent of the Italian duce and the German Führer—by the National Defense Committee (Junta de defensa nacional), which governed the territories occupied by the Nationalists. In April 1937 Franco assumed control of the Falange, then led by Manuel Hedilla, who had succeeded the founder José Antonio Primo de Rivera, executed in November 1936.
He consolidated it along with the monarchist Carlists into what was known as the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, the official party of the Francoists, referred to as the Movimiento, especially in the later years of the regime.
The Francoists took control of Spain through a comprehensive and methodical war of attrition (guerra de desgaste) which involved the imprisonment and executions of Spaniards found guilty of supporting the values promoted (at least in theory) by the Republic: regional autonomy, liberal or social democracy, free elections, and women's rights, including the vote.
At the end of the Spanish Civil War, according to the regime's own figures, there were more than 270,000 men and women held in prisons, and some 500,000 had fled into exile. Large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen. It has been estimated that more than 200,000 Spaniards died in the first years of the dictatorship, from 1940–42, as a result of political repression, hunger, and disease related to the conflict.4 Fransico Franco reviewing his troops in 1939.
https://41.media.tumblr.com/5a6592ac94d560b64ab1524d45bb575d/tumblr_mw6rjcr7yq1sue4rno1_1280.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francoist_Spain 3 | kalmun 2016 – joint crisis committee introduction study guide
1. Generalísimo Francisco Franco (Chair 1) Franco had been born into a military family. From 1907 to 1910, he was educated at Toledo Infantry Academy and he served in Spanish Morocco from 1910 to 1927. He made a name for himself leading attacks against Moroccan nationalists and in 1927 was promoted to full general and made principal of Saragossa Military Academy.
He stayed out of politics until he was ordered to put down a strike by coal miners in the Asturias. Here, the miners had created a soviet – a word that struck fear into many western Europeans. Franco suppressed the coal strike with efficiency but very ruthlessly. This one incident sealed his reputation for brutality though Franco saw it as he and his army simply carrying out an order to the best of his efficiency.
By 1936, Franco was chief of staff for the military. In July 1936, Franco lead a revolt against the Popular Front. It started in the Canary Islands, where Franco was governor and spread to Morocco where he had made many contacts in the 17 years he was based there.
In October 1936, Franco was appointed generalissimo of Nationalist Spain and head of state. This had the support of all those various factions on the right. In November 1936, Nazi Germany and Fascist Spain recognised Franco as the legitimate ruler of Spain.6 Flag of Francoist Spain, adopted in 1945.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Flag_of_Spain_%281945_svg/750px-Flag_of_Spain_%281945_-_1977%29.svg.png http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/ 4 | kalmun 2016 – joint crisis committee introduction study guide
... "we must extend the terror; we must impose the impression of dominion while eliminating without scruples everyone who does not think as we do (eliminando sin escrupulos a todos los que no piensen como nosotros)". 10 He served as the commander of rebels’ northern forces and died in a plane crash in June
1937. He spoke of razing the industry of Bilbao and Barcelona – only in this way could Spain be purged of what was most poisoning it, he believed.11 4. 12, Ramón Serrano Suñer a brilliant lawyer who had been active in the quasi-fascist youth movement of Spain’s mass Catholic party, CEDA. He was the brain behind the creation of both a formal state structure and a Francoist mass movement. Suñer had one other major advantage: he was Generalísimo Franco’s brother-in-law (cuñado), and was soon nicknamed by sharp political tongues the cuñadísimo (chief brother-in-law). the architect of the new Francoist state and soon to be the most powerful figure in rebel Spain after Franco, had almost been a victim of the extra-judicial killing in the Republican zone which claimed the lives of his two brothers. There was then a strong personal charge reinforcing Serrano Suñer’s political hostility to Republican democracy. (He would later bear a high degree of personal political responsibility in the decision to allow the deportation of Spanish Republicans to Nazi concentration camps in 1940.) Not only did Serrano https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Cabanellas-ferrer.jpg 2005, Spanish Civil War : A Very Short Introduction, Helen Graham, Oxford University Press, p.70 http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-lqA-K8mw8Ak/UBEQzl0hRSI/AAAAAAAAEBI/lxJStI-c_Xo/s1600/FOTO1.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilio_Mola 2005, Spanish Civil War : A Very Short Introduction, Helen Graham, Oxford University Press, p.73 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/ec/Serrano_S%C3%BA%C3%B1er.jpg/220pxSerrano_S%C3%BA%C3%B1er.jpg 5 | kalmun 2016 – joint crisis committee introduction study guide Suñer’s undoubted intellectual capacity recommend him to Franco, so too did his lack of a personal power base – which meant he could never challenge the Generalísimo’s own. He worked alongside Franco’s brother and secretary, Nicolás. In April 1937 they brought about the unification of the Falange and the Carlist monarchists whose militias also composed the two most numerous elements in the new mass army then under construction.13 He later worked as the Minister of Interior and Propoganda.
5. José Millán-Astray y Terreros was a Spanish soldier, the founder and first commander of the Spanish Foreign Legion, and a major early figure of Francisco Franco's Regime in Spain. Interested in forming a corps of foreign volunteers after the fashion of the French Foreign Legion, he traveled to Algeria to study its workings. With the support of then Major Francisco Franco, he created the Spanish Legion, and, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, served as its first commander. He would popularize the mottos ¡Viva la Muerte! ("Long live death!") and ¡A mí la Legión!
("To me, the legion!").
He also served as director of the Office of Radio, Press, and Propaganda (1936-1937) on the Nationalist side and later (1937) was named head of the Corps of Wounded Veterans. It is said that he administered the press office like a military barracks, forcing journalists to fall in line in response to his whistle, and subjecting them to the same brutal harangues he had given as commander of the Legion.14
6. Hugo Sperrle, entered the newly formed Luftwaffe in 1935 where he was soon promoted to a Generalmajor (US equiv.
brigadier general). He then was the first commander of the Condor Legion, German support region to Nationalist Spain, during the Spanish Civil War until October 1937, with Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen serving as his chief of staff. Afterwards he was promoted to General der Flieger (US equiv. Lieutenant general).15
7. Mario Roatta was the head of the Italian Military Information Service from 1934 to
1936. During the Spanish Civil War, he led the Corpo Truppe Volontarie and helped Francisco Franco's forces. He was the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Italian Army from October 1939 to March 1941 and from March 1941 to January 1942 its Chief of Staff.
From September 1936 to December 1938, he took part in the Spanish Civil War. He initially aided Galeazzo Ciano by helping direct "Italian assistance to the Nationalists on a day-to-day basis". In 1936 Ciano successfully persuaded Mussolini that Roatta be given command of the Corps of Volunteer Troops (Corpo Truppe Volontarie, CTV). In early March 1937, Roatta and his entire CTV were deployed to central Spain for the Battle of Guadalajara (Operation Folgore) with the intent of capturing Madrid and causing the collapse of the Second Spanish Republic.
2005, Spanish Civil War : A Very Short Introduction, Helen Graham, Oxford University Press, p.74,75,126 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Mill%C3%A1n_Astray https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Sperrle 6 | kalmun 2016 – joint crisis committee introduction study guide THE REPUBLICANOS (Segunda República Española) Here in Madrid is the universal frontier that separates liberty and slavery. It is here in Madrid that two incompatible civilizations undertake their great struggle: love against hate, peace against war, the fraternity of Christ against the tyranny of the Church.... This is Madrid. It is fighting for Spain, for humanity, for justice, and, with the mantle of its blood, it shelters all human beings! Madrid! Madrid!
-Fernando Valera, a Republican deputy, 16 The Second Republic was proclaimed during a period of worldwide economic depression. In spite of the high hopes, the Republican authorities had to struggle with rising unemployment and poverty. In the ensuing civil unrest, violence in the form of assassination, revolutionary general strikes, and mob actions increased to dangerous levels in the eyes of the traditional centres of power, such as the landowners, the Church, and the nobility. Thus, it was easy for them to whip up dissatisfaction with the republican government.
Right-wing political discourse became increasingly polarized, often as a form to check the threat of communism that was perceived to be expanding from the Soviet Union. Rather than working towards consensus between political forces, politicians on the right and the left leaned towards polarization and called openly for violence. The murders of the leftist military leader José Castillo and the rightist politician José Calvo Sotelo opened the way to a rapidly increasing flood of violence between the political left and right.