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«Since the 16th century, the guitar’s role in Spain has been divided between that of a strummed instrument sufficient for accompanying popular songs ...»

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(Under the Direction of David Starkweather)


Since the 16th century, the guitar’s role in Spain has been divided between that of a strummed

instrument sufficient for accompanying popular songs and a melodic instrument used for art music at court and in the concert hall. Of primary importance throughout the guitar’s history of art music in Spain is for the performer to communicate lyrical melodies. Ironically, the execution of a lyrical, legato melodic line is one of the most difficult skills to execute convincingly on the guitar. This difficulty is compounded by the addition of an accompaniment with the melodic line. While many studies explain the guitar’s physical, technical, and musical development, this document focuses on the musical and technical evolution of melodic playing in Spain. This study synthesizes the history, technique, pedagogy, and aesthetics of melodic phrasing within the Spanish guitar tradition from the middle of the 16th century through the early 20th century and addresses the technical and musical difficulties of legato melodic playing on the classical guitar.

INDEX WORDS: classical guitar, history, technique, pedagogy, melody, phrasing, articulation





B. Mus., University of Georgia, 2002 M. M., University of Georgia, 2008 A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of The University of Georgia in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree


ATHENS, GEORGIA © 2011 Luther David Enloe






Major Professor: David Starkweather Committee: Clinton Taylor Stephen Valdez

Electronic Version Approved:

Maureen Grasso Dean of the Graduate School The University of Georgia May 2011 DEDICATION For my wife, Victoria, whose assistance, patience, kindness, generosity, and support made this document possible, and my parents, Hugh and Janet, who always encouraged and supported my music and my education.

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I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my teacher and friend John Sutherland who suggested the subject matter for this document and who always insisted that I connect melodic lines. A big thanks to my incredibly supportive, knowledgeable, and helpful graduate committee. My major professor, Dr. David Starkweather, was extremely generous with his time, and his experience and insights always proved valuable during the course of writing this document. Two of the chapters in this document started their life as papers for Dr. Stephen Valdez, whose expertise in the history of the guitar and constant encouragement and support have helped guide the course of this work. Dr. Clinton “Skip” Taylor’s critical eye, sense of humor, and expertise in strings education made significant contributions to the direction of this work. Thanks, too, to the music faculty at the University of Georgia for providing me the opportunity for an excellent education.

–  –  –




Purpose of the Study and Delimitations

Statement of the Problem and Sub-Problems

Contribution of the Study




The Dominance of Melody in Music

Definition of Melody

Melodic Organization and Texture

Phrasing and Articulation

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16th-Century Spanish Literature for the Guitar and Related Instruments.............. 16

–  –  –


THE GUITAR’S LYRICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE 19TH CENTURY.............. 41 The Guitar’s Musical Style in the Early 19th Century

Sor’s Principles of Melodic Fingering

Sor and Aguado’s Principles of Articulation

Sor and Aguado’s Principles Concerning Timbre

Aguado’s Advice on Phrasing and Expression

The Guitar’s Melodic Development in the Late 19th Century


Controlling Articulation on Single Strings

Controlling Articulation on String Crossings

Controlling Timbre

Maintaining a Consistent Timbre on String Crossings and Shifts

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–  –  –

Example 2.1: Gaspar Sanz, Canarios, mm.


Example 2.2: Fernando Sor, Moderato, Op.

44, No. 6, mm. 1-4

Example 2.3: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

35, No. 17, mm. 1-8

Example 2.4: Gaspar Sanz, Canarios, m.

1, primary motives

Example 2.5: Luis Milán, Pavan I, mm.

43-50, homorhythmic texture

Example 2.6: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

6, No. 2, mm. 1-8

Example 2.7: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

35, No. 13, mm. 1-8

Example 2.8: Luis Milán, Pavan I, mm.


Example 2.9: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

6, No. 8, mm. 10-16

Example. 2.10: Gaspar Sanz, Gallarda, mm. 4-12

Example 2.11: Santiago de Murcia, Passacalles in E, mm.


Example 2.12: Francisco Tárrega, Prelude on a Theme of Mendelssohn, mm.

12-14................. 13 Example 2.13: Fernando Sor, Variations on a Theme of Mozart, Op.

9, m. 20

Example 2.14: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

31, No. 20, mm. 1-4

Example 2.15: Fernando Sor, Variations on a Theme of Mozart, Op.

9, Variation 1, m.2........... 15 Example 3.1: Miguel Fuenllana, Fantasia, Orphénica Lyra, Book 2, Folio xxix

Example 3.2: six-course vihuela from Milán’s El Maestro

Example 3.3: comparison of tuning between the vihuela and the classical guitar

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four-course guitarra

Example 3.5: Miguel Fuenllana, principles of left hand fingering

Example 4.1: re-entrant Italian tuning of the five-course Baroque guitar

Example 4.2: campanelas passage in Italian tuning

Example 4.3: Gaspar Sanz, Pavanas, mm.


Example 4.4: Gaspar Sanz, Pavanas, mm.

32-33, modern guitar fingering

Example 4.5: Gaspar Sanz, Jacaras, mm.


Example 4.6: Spanish tuning

Example 4.7: Gaspar Sanz, Folias, mm.

1-4, and 49-52

Example 4.8: Francisco Guerau, Marionas, mm.


Example 4.9: Santiago de Murcia, Zangarilleja, mm 1-7

Example 4.10: Gaspar Sanz, La cavalleria de Nepoles con dos clarines, mm.


Example 5.1: Dionisio Aguado, Lesson 22

Example 5.2: Fernando Sor, Method for the Guitar, ed.

Harrison, Plate 6, Ex. 24

Example 5.3: Fernando Sor, Method for the Guitar, ed.

Harrison, Plate 16, Ex. 51

Example 5.4: Fernando Sor, Grand Solo, Op.

14, mm. 33-36

Example 5.5: Fernando Sor, Fantasia, Op.

7, mm. 16-24

Example 5.6: Fernando Sor, playing melodic notes with the ring finger

Example 5.7: Fernando Sor: Method for the Guitar, ed.

Harrison, Plate 7, Ex. 28

Example 5.8: Dionisio Aguado, ascending scale with string crossings indicated

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Example 5.10: Francisco Tárrega, ¡Adelita!, mm.


Example 5.11: Francisco Tárrega, ¡Marieta!, mm.


Example 5.12: Francisco Tárrega, Recuerdos de la Alhambra, mm.


Example 5.13: Francisco Tárrega, La Mariposa, mm.


Example 6.1: degrees of right hand articulation

Example 6.2: Emilio Pujol, Guitar School, Vol.

2, Exercise 33

Example 6.3: Francisco Tárrega: ¡Adelita!, mm.


Example 6.4: guide finger shifts, left hand placement, and transfer of weight

Example 6.5: Francisco Tárrega, Lagrima, mm.


Example 6.6: Fernando Sor, Variations on a Theme of Mozart, Op.

9, Variation 5, mm. 1-9..... 66 Example 6.7: Pascual Roch, slur exercise

Example 6.8: Francisco Tárrega, Capricho Árabe, mm.


Example 6.9: ascending string crossings

Example 6.10: descending string crossings

Example 6.11: Pascual Roch, slurs on two adjacent strings

Example 6.12: split pitch on cross string hammer-on

Example 6.13: Francisco Tárrega, Estudio Brillante de Alard, mm.


Example 6.14: un-damped descending open string crossings

Example 6.15: descending left hand open string damps

Example 6.16: back-thumb damp

Example 6.17: rest stroke thumb damp

–  –  –

Example 6.19: Gaspar Sanz, Mariona

Example 6.20: Gaspar Sanz, Dance de las Haches

Example 6.21: Gaspar Sanz, Españoleta, mm.


Example 6.22: Luis de Narváez, Guárdame las Vacas, Variation 1, mm.


Example 6.23: Fernando Sor, Variations on a Theme of Mozart, Op.

9, mm. 193-200............... 76 Example 6.24: Luis Milán, Pavan I, mm.


Example 6.25: perpendicular and oblique angles of attack

Example 6.26: chromatic scale from Roch’s A Modern Method for Guitar, vol.

1, arrows and description of contact by the author

Example 6.27: Felix Mendelssohn, arr.

Francisco Tárrega, Romanza Senza Parole, Op. 30, No. 3, mm. 9-17, arrows and timbre indications by the author

Example 6.28: Fernando Sor, Andante Largo, Op.

5, No. 5, mm. 17-19

Example 6.29: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

6, No. 2

Example 6.30: Fernando Sor, Estudio, Op.

6, No. 1

Example 6.31: Fernando Sor, Introduction to Variations, Op.

9, mm. 5-12

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The purpose of the study is to synthesize the history, technique, pedagogy, and aesthetics of melodic phrasing within the Spanish guitar tradition from the middle of the 16th century through the early 20th century. Through a close reading of the texts and music of primary sources from the Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras, this study traces the aesthetic and technical development of melodic phrasing in Spanish guitar music.

–  –  –

The specific problems addressed by this study concern historical aesthetic perspectives, technical problems, and pedagogical problems as they relate to melodic playing. In examining aesthetic perspectives, research into period texts uncovers each author’s philosophical point of view regarding the guitar’s melodic capabilities. The manner in which these philosophical views affect musical style, technique, and pedagogy are discussed. Additionally, methods for incorporating philosophical perspectives on melodic aesthetics through performance practice are addressed.

Inspection of primary sources reveals the extent to which various techniques throughout history were utilized to connect melodic lines. These techniques include tone development, articulation, vibrato, dynamics, and tempo shaping. This research takes into account the degree to which physical changes to the instrument impact the modern guitarist’s ability to incorporate these techniques.

Techniques appropriate for teaching legato melodic playing fall into pedagogic subproblems. By identifying the pedagogy found in period sources, this study will identify the aesthetic, technical, and melodic characteristics from each period to present basic techniques required to connect melodic lines on the guitar.

–  –  –

According to current research, information that concentrates on the development of a legato melodic style on the classical guitar is limited. Teachers, students, and historians may gain a greater understanding of the development and execution of melodic phrasing in the historical and cultural context of the Spanish guitar tradition. Additionally, because of the international nature of the guitar throughout its history, the technical and musical concepts presented in this study may be applicable to a wide range of repertoire.

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