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«Evaluation of Selection Methods for Global Mobility Management Software Masterarbeit zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades „Master of Science ...»

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Leibniz Universität Hannover

Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät

Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik

Evaluation of Selection Methods for Global Mobility

Management Software

Masterarbeit

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades „Master of Science (M.Sc.)“ im

Studiengang Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen

Fakultät der Leibniz Universität Hannover

vorgelegt von

Name: Rohr Vorname: Anna

Geb. am: 17.08.1985 in: Temirtau, Kasachstan Prüfer: Prof. Dr. Michael H. Breitner Betreuer: Marion Goldberg (Continental AG) Hannover, den 31. März 2015 Table of Contents Page List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction

1.1 Motivation and Relevance

1.2 Study Objectives and Research Questions

1.3 Structural Approach

2 Theoretical Foundations

2.1 International Assignment Management

2.1.1 Definition of IAM by Subordination in the Field of IHRM

2.1.2 Content and Processes of International Assignments

2.1.3 Expatriation Literature State-of-the-Art

2.1.4 The Importance of Global Mobility Management Software for IAM.. 12 2.2 Packaged Software

2.2.1 Software as a Service

2.2.2 Opportunities and Risks of SaaS

2.3 Software Selection Method State-of-the-Art

2.3.1 Generalized Software Selection and Acquisition Process Model........ 19 2.3.2 Software Evaluation and Selection Criteria State-of-the-Art............... 26 2.3.3 Multiple Criteria Decision Making

2.4 Analytic Hierarchy Process

2.4.1 The Process of AHP

2.4.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of AHP

2.4.3 Large Numbers of Pair-wise Comparisons in AHP

3 Research Methodology

3.1 Case Study Research

3.1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Case study Research

3.1.2 Single Case Study Research

3.2 Case Study: International Assignment Management at CAG

3.2.1 The Case Company: Continental AG

3.2.2 International Assignment Management at Continental AG................. 50 3.2.3 Basic Structure of the Assignment Process at CAG

I 3.2.4 Current Challenges and Quality Issues of the Assignment Process..... 54 3.3 The Research Questions

3.4 Data Collection

4 Software Evaluation and Selection at CAG

4.1 Preparation Phase of CAG's Tendering Process

4.2 Facilitation Phase of CAG's Tendering Process

4.3 Software Selection Requirements

4.3.1 General Application Information

4.3.2 International Assignment Administration Functionality

4.3.3 IT Security/ Data Protection & Legal Requirements

4.3.4 Technical / Application & Infrastructure

4.4 From Requirements to Criteria for the First Evaluation Phase

4.5 Global Mobility Management Solutions

4.5.1 Deloitte Global Advantage

4.5.2 ECAEnterprise

4.5.3 EQUUS AssignmentPro

4.5.4 KPMG LINK Global Mobility Technology

5 First Vendor Evaluation Phase with AHP

5.1 AHP Software

5.2 Transfer of the Selection Problem in the AHP Hierarchy

5.3 TransparentChoice AHP based Software

5.4 Evaluation of Selection Criteria with TransparentChoice

6 Results

6.1 Comparison of the Selection and Acquisition Method

6.2 Comparison of the Selection and Evaluation Criteria

6.3 Comparison of the Selection and Evaluation Technique

7 Discussion

8 Implications for Research and Practice

8.1 Implications for Research

8.2 Implications for Practice

9 Limitations

10 Conclusion and Outlook

List of Reference

11 Appendix

II 1 Introduction One of the oldest intellectual challenges in science and engineering, is how to make the best decision in a given situation. This problem is as old as humanity itself. In some prehistoric civilizations, people attempted to decide about complex and risky problems by seeking advice from priests or educated individuals. Nowadays, the development of scientific disciplines such as statistics, operations research and management science, in association with the use of modern computers, serves as an aid in assisting people in making the best decision in a particular situation. Several techniques, such as linear or dynamic programming, hypothesis testing, optimization of queuing systems, and multicriteria decision making (MCDM) have a mutual element: the search for the optimal decision. MCDM especially, has captured the attention of many people, as the decision among several alternatives and a set of decision criteria may arise in many different situations (cf. Triantaphyllou 2000, p. xxv).

Business decision making has also changed over the last decades. Decision environments have developed, from a single person the Boss! and a single criterion profit, to multi-person and multi-criteria situations. The awareness of this development is growing not only in theory but also in practice (cf. Triantaphyllou 2000, p. xxiii). Therefore, the following master thesis investigates a present business decision process.

1.1 Motivation and Relevance The 21st century is marked, by rapidly transforming economic conditions in various fields of business (cf. Lin, Lin 2014, p. 43). The transformation of business processes raises the demand for reliable qualitative software packages. In order to meet specific needs of organizations, software firms are producing a variety of customizable and tailored software packages (cf. Jadhav, Sonar 2011, p. 1394; Palanisamy et al. 2010, p.





611).

However, due to the availability of large number of software products in the market, decision making in the field of software selection has become more complex (cf.

Jadhav, Sonar 2008, p. 337). Furthermore, software package selection involves simultaneous consideration of multiple selection criteria, according to the user requirements, as well as complex technical, legal, and business considerations. Therefore, selecting the correct software solution is a challenging process for companies (cf. Jadhav, Sonar 2009b, p. 556; Kaur, Singh 2014, p. 3739; Palanisamy et al. 2010, p. 611; Howcroft, 1 Light 2006, p. 215; Arditi, Singh 1991, p. 39). This activity is also fraught with a high level of risk and uncertainty. The incorrect decision can adversely affect the business and dissipates a significant portion of an organization’s IT budget (cf. Palanisamy et al.

2010, p. 611).

Therefore, the importance of outstanding performance in the management of IT projects is growing. The increasing demand of software as a service (SaaS), rising environmental tensions and uncertainty, decreasing time frames for IT projects and high quality requirements, make efficient management of IT projects a critical success factor of many companies (cf. Disterer 2002, p. 512; Harnisch 2014, p. 11).

These conditions have led scientists to scrutinize if evaluators within IT projects are using the most appropriate methods and techniques in software selection processes (cf.

Jadhav, Sonar 2008, p. 337; Kontio et al. 1996). Furthermore, researchers explore the best ways of evaluating and selecting software packages. Several MCDM approaches were proposed to address the problem of coping with multiple evaluation criteria (cf.

Jadhav, Sonar 2009b, p. 556; Kaur, Singh 2014, p. 3739; Palanisamy et al. 2010, p.

611).

In order to decide which MCDM is appropriate for a certain decision making problem, it is important to have an understanding of their comparative value (cf. Triantaphyllou 2000, p. 5).There are many detailed publications available regarding this topic. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP), as one of the MCDM techniques, was found to be widely used for the evaluation of software packages (cf. Jadhav, Sonar 2009b, p. 555).

AHP is a theory of measurement for dealing with quantifiable and intangible criteria.

The procedures of AHP are applicable to individual and also group decision settings (cf.

Jadhav, Sonar 2009b, p. 559; Lai et al. 1999, pp. 222). The technique allows decision makers to structure a decision making problem into a hierarchy, helping them to understand and simplify the problem. Scientists appreciate AHP as a flexible and powerful technique, which allows consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria in selecting the best alternative (cf. Jadhav, Sonar 2009b, p. 560; Kaur, Singh 2014, p.

3740). Since the AHP approach involves time consuming mathematical steps, several supporting tools (software solutions) are available.

2

1.2 Study Objectives and Research Questions The selection of packaged software, that offers support for a particular business function, remains a largely underrepresented research area in mainstream information system (IS) literature (cf. Howcroft, Light 2006, p. 21). This thesis contributes to this stream of research by using the single/holistic case study methodology according to Yin (2014), in order to describe and analyze the process of selection and acquisition of a software package within an international corporation.

The software selection project of the case company is also driven by globalization and internalization. The International Assignment Management (IAM) department of Continental AG (CAG) has to cope with increasing numbers of assignments and their destinations, as well as the growing complexity of regulatory compliance (cf. Deloitte 2012, p.

29). CAG has recognized that there is a need to develop standard global mobility capabilities that are fast, cost efficient, effective, and reliable. To facilitate the simplification of mobility management through automated and organized processes, the company has to execute evaluation and selection of suitable global mobility management (GMM) software.

Based on existing theoretical work on software selection methods and their variants,

including software selection criteria, evaluation techniques and tools, the general research question of the thesis is as follows:

1. Is it possible to improve the software selection process of Continental AG?

The investigation of this question is determined through the comparison of the theoretical software selection and acquisition methods, including selection criteria and techniques with the practical software selection method of the case company. Additional objective is to identify scope for improvement for both sides, theory and practice. Particularly interesting is the question, whether the AHP approach and respective software tool is applicable to the genuine IT project. This interest leads to the following specific

research questions:

2. How can the software selection and evaluation process be supported with an AHP based software?

3. Why is it advantageous to consider a change of the manual evaluation technique?

3

1.3 Structural Approach This master thesis is divided into ten chapters. figure 1 summarizes the structure of the thesis and provides a brief description of the main content of each chapter. Adjacently to the introduction, the theoretical foundations are explained. Since the selection process of a GMM software is subject of this thesis, the field of IAM is introduced in order to indicate the urgency of the implementation of a supporting software solution. The second part of the theoretical background refers to packaged software and the delivery model of SaaS. Further, this chapter provides a review of theoretical investigation in the field of software evaluation and selection methods (including criteria and techniques). Additionally, AHP, a widely used existing software evaluation technique is illustrated in detail. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the applied methodology, the case study of the IAM department and the research questions. In chapter 4, the evaluation and selection process of CAG is described in detail, including the presentation of requirements, evaluation criteria and the evaluation technique. The selected vendors (alternatives) are also briefly presented. Subsequently, in chapter 5, AHP based software solutions are briefly introduced, the decision problem of CAG is translated into the AHP approach and evaluated with TransparentChoice, an appropriate AHP based software.

In chapter 6, the results of this thesis are elaborated through the comparison of the theoretical and the practical approach, regarding the entire process (method), the evaluation criteria and the evaluation techniques. The results are critically discussed and answers to the research questions are formulated in chapter 7. Resulting implications for research and practice are formulated in chapter 8. Chapter 9 provides limitations of the thesis, while chapter 10 concludes the work with a short summary and outlook.

4 10 Conclusion and Outlook The present thesis deals with software selection methods in a unique context of IAM.

To show the particular context, IAM related processes were identified, which emphasizes the great degree of complexity linked to this particular HR function. Since increasing globalization fosters companies to promote more international assignments, the function of an international assignment manager is becoming increasingly important, however the employment of GMM software offers a possibility to support this area of operations.

Technology such as GMM software can improve the situation and decrease mentioned risks and discontent. The market offers new and improved technology solutions across the entire mobility lifecycle. The case company is currently facing the challenge of selecting an appropriate software solution for the IAM department. In this context, existing theoretical work on software selection methods, including software selection criteria, evaluation techniques and tools were examined. Consequently, the "Generalized Software Selection and Acquisition Process Model" was shown and described, the generic set of software evaluation criteria was introduced as well as a range of MCDM techniques. The MCDM technique AHP was widely used for evaluation of software packages in theory and practice, therefore this technique was presented explicitly.



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