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«A Thesis Submitted To Central Department of Economics Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences In Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the ...»

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Problems and Prospects of Tourism in FWDR

(A case study of Kailali district)

A Thesis

Submitted To

Central Department of Economics

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

In Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Masters of Arts in Economics


Kiran Joshi

Roll No. 405/065

Central Department of Economics

Tribhuvan University Campus

Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal




This thesis entitled “Problems and Prospects of Tourism in FWDR (A case study of Kailali district)" has been prepared by Kiran Joshi under my supervision in partial fulfillment of requirements of the Degree of MASTERS of ARTS in ECONOMICS. I hereby recommend this thesis for examination to the Thesis Committee for approval.


Supervisor Bharat Pokharel Associate Prof. Central Department of Economics Tribhuvan University Date: 23 December 2013 2


This is to certify that the thesis submitted by Kiran Joshi entitled “Problems and Prospects of Tourism in FWDR (A case study of Kailali district)” to the Central Department of Economics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tribhuvan University, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Economics has been found satisfactory in scope and quality.

Therefore, we accept this thesis as a part of the said degree.

Thesis Evaluation Committee __________________

Associate Prof. Ram Prasad Gyawaly, Ph.D.

Head Central Department of Economics __________________

Prof. Shoora B. Paudyal, Ph.D.

External Central Department of Economics __________________

Associate Prof. Bharat Pokharel Thesis Supervisor Date: 23 De

–  –  –

Far Western Development Region including Kailali District has huge potential for tourism industry. This region has historical, cultural, religious and naturally important different sites and most of them are unexplored and unidentified.

Government's role, plans, policies, institutional arrangements are important for the development and management of tourism. They serve several important functions including: tourism planning and development, coordination, marketing and promotion, and regulation and control. These all are in crisis in the region.

The main aim of the study is to find out the major possible tourist attractions of the region and district, existing situation of the presence of government in the sector of the tourism and the activities by the local people. Infrastructure and facilities development status and the response of the visitors for the future guideline.

4 The major problems of tourism identified from this study in the region are: proper conservation of nature; infrastructure and facilities development; lack of proper role from the government; lack of professionalism; lack of proper tourism planning and implementation; poor implementation of existing rules and regulations; lack of marketing and promotion; lack of coordination between the local organizations.

The major prospects of tourism identified from this study in the region are: friendly people; natural beauty; cultural diversity; religious sites; protected areas; market in abundance.

The main conclusion from this study is that the proper coordination, collaboration and cooperation must be necessary among the government bodies for tourism development, local organizations, entrepreneurs and peoples for the tourism development of the region and district. For the development of this region tourism can be one of the main instruments and government's role would be the most.

–  –  –

I would like to express my deep gratitude to the Central Department of Economics at Tribhuvan University, for allowing me to carry out this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Economics.

I am grateful to my supervisor Associate Prof. Bharat Pokharel, for providing me an opportunity to learn different knowledge related to research during this study under his supervision.

I am very much thankful to Associate Prof. Dr. Ram Prasad Gyawaly Head, Central Department of Economics for his valuable suggestions and inspiration during the preparation of this thesis. I am very thankful to Karmadani Chaudhary for providing me valuable information related to Tharu culture of Kailali.

Likewise, I would like to recall my heartfelt reverence to the librarians of T.U, CBS, NTB and NPC.

I would like to express my deep gratitude and indebtedness to my parents, brothers, sister and brother-in-law for their encouragement and support. I want to specially remember my sweet niece for her calmness and patience during my work.

Last but not least, I am thankful to the respondents as well as other people of the study area, who provided necessary as well as valuable information and possible help to accomplish this study.

December, 2013

–  –  –

SNV Netherlands Development Organization TAAN Trekking Agencies' Association of Nepal TRPAP Tourism for Rural Poverty Alleviation Program

–  –  –

Nepal, wedged strategically by the two growing economy of the present world namely India and China is a tiny landlocked country, located on the southern flank of the Himalayan range, situated in the northern hemisphere, known as land of Mt. Everest and the birth place of Lord Buddha, though Nepal occupies only 0.33 percent and 0.3 percent of total land area of World and Asia respectively, the country has an extreme topography and climate. The altitude ranges from 70 meters to 8848 meters and climate varies from tropical to arctic depending upon altitude. The country stretches from east to west with length of 885 kilometer and widens from north to south with mean breadth of 193 kilometer. Geographically, the country is divided into three East-West ecological zones: the northern range – Mountain, the mid range – Hill and the southern range – Terai (flat land). In the northern range, the Himalayas form an unbroken mountain range which contains eight peaks higher than 8000 meters, including Mt. Everest on the border with China.

The middle range is captured by gorgeous mountains, high peaks, hills, valleys and lakes. The Kathmandu valley lies in this region. The southern range with almost 16 kilometer to 32 kilometer, north-south consists of dense forest areas, national parks, wildlife reserves and conservation areas and fertile lands. At present, the country is divided into five north-south administrative development zones: Far Western Development Region, Mid Western Development Region, Western Development Region, Central Development Region, and Eastern Development Region. The country is further divided into 75 administrative districts. Moreover the districts are further divided into smaller units called Village Development Committees (total

3915) and municipality (58). The Village Development Committees are rural areas, whereas municipalities are urban areas of the country. According to the National Population Census 2011, the annual growth rate of population is 1.35 percent and the total population of country has reached about 26.5 millions with sex ratio of 94.2. The preliminary estimate of per capita GDP at current prices stands at NRs 57, 762 (US$ 735) for the year 2011/12. The economic growth of the country measured by GDP is 4.63 percent per year in the year 2011/12. About one fourth of the population (25.16 percent) leaves below poverty line as per the Nepal Living Standard Survey 2010/11 and the Gini Coefficient; which indicates inequality in income distribution is 14

0.328. The country lies at the latitude of 260220 N to 300270 N and 80040 E to 880120 E in longitude. Nepal covers an area of 1, 47,181 sq. kilometers (CBS, 2012).

Far Western Development Region is one of the development regions of Nepal among five, it is located at the western end of the country, Dipayal is its regional headquarter. The total area of this region is 19,539 square kilometer. Which consists of two zones namely Seti and Mahakali and nine districts comes under this region. This region was used to called Doti region in past, which some believe originated from 'Dovati' meaning land between two rivers. Others believe it originated from the Hindu God Dev, and Aatavi, meaning the place of re-creation. The area's history goes back to the 13th century when Niranjan Malldeo founded the Doti Kingdom following the fall of the Katyuri Kings. Dotiyali and Kumauni mostly spoken in hilly and upper hilly parts of the region and in Terai Tharu, Rana Tharu, Kathariya languages including Dotiyali languages are spoken in the Far Western Region. Deuda, Jhoda, Chhpeli, Chhaliya, Bhada, Sakhiya, Mungrauha, Holi etc. are traditional dance of the region and Gaura or Gamara is the biggest festival of the region in hilly parts and in Terai Maghi is the biggest festival among Tharu community. Dhangadhi, Bhimduttta nagar, Amargadhi, Dipyal-Silgadhi, Tikapur are some of the major cities of the region. Short description of the different nine districts of the region is as followsAchham district is one of the districts of Seti zone, Mangalsen is head quarter of the district; the district covers an area of 1692 square kilometers. The district is accessible by road from Kathmandu and other cities of Nepal. Sub-tropical, mild-temperate, cool-temperate are the climates of the district. The temperature raises maximum to 30 degree centigrade and falls minimum to 1 degree centigrade. Nepali, Gurung, Maithili, Limbu, Bhojpuri, Tamang are the major cultures of the district. Mangelsen, Jay gadh, Gajara, Ramaroshan are the major tourist attractions of the district (NTB, 2008).

Baitadi is 849 kilometers from Kathmandu, the Baitadi bazaar is locally known as Garhi (fort).

This place is located in the southern slope of Shahi Lekh. Being part of Kumaun, Baitadi was rule by Chand kings of Kumaun before 1791 and then after it becomes the part of Nepal. This district is situated in the height of 2439 meters to 6936 meters from sea level; this district covers an area of 1519 square kilometers. Mahakali, Chalaune, Surnaya are the major rivers of the 15 district. Tropical, temperate, mild-temperate, alpine are the climates found here. The temperature rose up to 33 degree centigrade and falls down up to 0.5 degree centigrade and receives rainfall of 1242 milliliter. Brahmin, Chhetri, Thakuri, Kami, Lohar etc are the major language and culture of the district (NTB, 2008).

Bajhang is 660 kilometers far from Kathmandu. Its district head quarter is Chainpur. District covers an area of 4322 square kilometer. In Bajhang temperature reaches maximum to 35.5 degree centigrade and fall down to 0.5 degree centigrade and receives rainfall of 1343.9 milliliter. Snow covered mountain like Saipal Himal (7031meter), Sankhamala Himal, Lama Peak, Ramkot Danda along Seti river valley has increased the beauty of the district. Different animals like Himalyan black bear, wolf, hispid hare, blue sheep, barking deer, snow leopard are the animals found here. Birds like raven, vulture, hawk, Himalyan munal, and pheasant are available here. Evergreen temperate and alpine forest adds the beauty of this district. The socioculture of the lower part is mainly Hindu and upper part is influenced by Tibetan Culture.

Altitude ranges from 915 meters to 7031 meters. Chainpur, Jaya Prithivinagar, Surma Sarowar, Thalhawa are the major tourist attractions (NTB, 2008).

Bajura is 950 kilometers from Kathmandu; Martadi is its head quarter. The name Martadi is derived from the name of Martanda Rishi. Badimalika and Kailashmandu are the important temples situated here and they can be one of the major attractions for the tourists. Chhetri, Thakuri, Brahmin, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Kumal and Chuar are the major ethnic groups in the district. Polyandry tradition exists among Bhotia and Sauka communities. Jiulekhmandu and Badimalika are the place of worship for the local people; major festivals are Dashain, Tihar, Fagu, Daval Jatra and Sain Kande Jatra. Deuda and Bhuwa dances are popular in the region for their uniqueness. Budhiganga, Karnali, Kawadi, Kunna are the major rivers. Sub-tropical, temperate, cool-temperate and alpine climate is found here. Maximum temperature rises up to 36 degree centigrade and falls down up to 1 degree centigrade and receives rainfall of 1343 millimeter. Tante, Malika, Nateshwori, Chededaha, Khaptad Lake and different mountain peaks are the tourist attractions of the district (NTB, 2008).

Dadeldhura is located in hilly region, folk music and songs are popular here. Different caste groups: Chettri, Brahmin, Kami, Sarki, Thakuri, Lohar lives here. Magar, Gurung, Badi, Raute, 16 Tamang, are the miniorities of the district. Dashain, Tihar, Baisakh Sankranti, Masta Puja, Ram nawami, Kartik Jatra, Sripanchamai, Maghe Sankranti, Gaura Parva, Hudkeli dance are the major festivals celebrated in the district. Ajay merukot, Amargadhi fort, Ugratara temple are the major heritages of the district. District covers an area of 1538 square kilometers and altitude ranges from 157 meters to 2439 meters. The climate is said best of this district for the human survival, and the agricultural production especially vegetable farming of this district is praise worthy in the region (NTB, 2008).

Darchula lies in the west-north corner of the country. Dhar literally means edge in Nepali and Chula means fire place, thus, the district derives its name today, legends say that in ancient time Hermit Byas cooked rice on the top of two peaks. Byas Rishi Himal is the famous peak here. It covers area of 1867 square kilometers; the major rivers are Mahakali, Chalaune, Tinkar, Nampa and Kalagad. The district’s boundary is connected with India and China also. Tropical, subtropical, cool temperate, mild temperate, alpine types of climate are found here. Temperature lies from 18 degree centigrade to minus 7 degree centigrade and rainfall is up to 143 milliliter.

Nepali, Byasi, Gurung, Bhote, Doteli are the dominant language and culture here. Khalanga, Tapoban, Gokuleshwar, Tinkar, Jaljibi, Api Himal, Byas Rishi Himal, Nampa Himal, Jaskar Himal are the major tourist attractions of the district (NTB, 2008).

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