«The Russian–Chechen wars have had an extraordinarily destructive impact on the communities and on the trajectories of personal lives in the North ...»
Chechnya at War and Beyond
The Russian–Chechen wars have had an extraordinarily destructive impact on
the communities and on the trajectories of personal lives in the North Caucasus
Republic of Chechnya. This book presents in-depth analysis of the Chechen
conﬂicts and their consequences on Chechen society. It discusses the nature of
the violence, examines the dramatic changes which have taken place in society, in
the economy and in religion, and surveys current developments, including how the conﬂict is being remembered and how Chechnya is reconstructed and governed.
Anne Le Huérou is a Lecturer in Contemporary Russian and Post Soviet studies at Université Paris Ouest Nanterre and a Research Associate at the Centre d’études des mondes russe, caucasien et centre-européen (CERCEC), École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), Paris, France.
Aude Merlin is a Lecturer in Political Sciences at Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and a member of CEVIPOL (Centre d’étude de la vie politique).
Amandine Regamey is a Lecturer in Russian Language at University Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne and a Research Associate at the Centre d’études des mondes russe, caucasien et centre-européen (CERCEC), École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), Paris, France.
Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski is the Chief Editor of The Journal of Power Insti- tutions in Post-Soviet Societies and a Research Associate at the Centre d’études des mondes russe, caucasien et centre-européen (CERCEC), École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), Paris, France.
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Edited by Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski First published 2014 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2014 selection and editorial material, Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski; individual chapters, the contributors The right of Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski to be identiﬁed as author of the editorial material, and of the individual authors as authors of their contributions, has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Chechnya at war and beyond / edited by Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski.
pages cm -- (Routledge contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe series; 56) Summary: “The Russia-Chechen wars have had an extraordinarily destructive impact on the communities and on the trajectories of personal lives in the North Caucasus Republic of Chechnya. This book presents in-depth analysis of the Chechen conﬂicts and their consequences on Chechen society. It discusses the nature of the violence, examines the dramatic changes which have taken place in society, in the economy and in religion, and surveys current developments, including how the conﬂict is being remembered and how Chechnya is reconstructed and governed”-- Provided by publisher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Chechnia (Russia)--History--Civil War, 1994- 2. Chechnia (Russia)--History--Civil War, 1994---Social aspects. 3. Collective memory--Russia (Federation)--Chechnia. 4. Political violence--Russia (Federation)--Chechnia. 5. Violence--Social aspects--Russia (Federation)--Chechnia. 6. War and society--Russia (Federation)--Chechnia.
7. Social change--Russia (Federation)--Chechnia. 8. Chechnia (Russia)--Social conditions. 9. Chechnia (Russia)--Politics and government. I. Le Huérou, Anne.
II. Merlin, Aude. III. Regamey, Amandine. IV. Sieca-Kozlowski, Elisabeth.
DK511.C37C48585 2014 947.5’2--dc23 2013050178 ISBN: 978-0-415-74489-8 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-79831-8 (ebk) Typeset in Time New Roman by Taylor & Francis Books Contents
1 Grozny as it was before the war: remembrance and reconciliation in “virtual” and “real” post-Soviet communities 19
WALTER SPERLING2 Remembering and forgetting in Chechnya today: using the Great Patriotic War to create a new historical narrative 37 AUDE MERLIN
8 Between war experience and ordinary police rationales: state violence against civilians in post-war Chechen Republic 152 ANNE LE HUÉROU 9 The North Caucasus insurgency: understanding the Chechen rebels in the context of the Caucasus Emirate 176 JEAN-FRANÇOIS RATELLE
Musa Basnukaev, Ph.D., is Head of “Taxes and Taxation” Department at Chechen State University. His researches on the economy of post-Soviet Chechnya have been presented in diﬀerent scientiﬁc conferences and seminars in France, Belgium, Great Britain, and the USA. He is the author of more than 40 scientiﬁc articles published in Russian, English, and French, among them: “Reconstruction économique et ‘normalisation’ en Tchétchénie” (in A. Merlin and S. Serrano, Ordres et désordres au Caucase, 2010).
Nataliya Danilova is a Lecturer in International Relations in the College of Social Sciences and International Studies, University of Exeter (Cornwall Campus, UK). She is the author of a monograph, Armed Forces and Society: Principles of Interrelations (2007) and of a series of articles on veterans’ politics, the Soviet Afghan War, and memory of modern conﬂicts.
Anne Le Huérou is Assistant Professor in the Department of Slavic Studies, University Paris-X-Nanterre and Research Associate at the CERCEC (EHESS/CNRS). For the last few years she has conducted research on Chechen war and its consequences on Russian society, as well as on labor migrations, patriotism, and police in Russia.
Tanya Lokshina is Russia Program Director for Human Rights Watch. She is the recipient of the 2006 Andrei Sakharov Award for Journalism as Civic Accomplishment. Since 2003, Lokshina’s work has largely focused on Chechnya and the Caucasus. Her books include Chechnya Inside Out and Imposition of a Fake Political Settlement in the Northern Caucasus (2007).
Aude Merlin holds a Ph.D. in Political Science. She is a member of the CEVIPOL at the Université libre de Bruxelles and a Lecturer in Political Science. She is a specialist of the North Caucasus. Recently, she has published “Le conﬂit tchétchène à l’épreuve de la reconnaissance,” Cultures et conﬂits, 87: 187–209, 2012 (with Anne Le Huérou).
Jean-François Ratelle is a postdoctoral fellow at the George Washington University. He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Ottawa in 2013.
Notes on contributors xi His Ph.D. dissertation deals with the recent upsurge of insurgent violence in the North Caucasus. The author engaged in ethnographic-based research that focused on the pathways toward insurgent participation in Dagestan and in the North Caucasus.
Amandine Regamey is a lecturer in Russian language at Paris I University and research associate at the CERCEC (EHESS/CNRS). She has worked on Chechnya since 2000, focusing on violence against civilians and on war legends. Her last articles on Chechnya have been published in The Journal of Power Institutions in Post Soviet Societies, Laboratorium, and The Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence.
Mikhail Roshchin (Ph.D.), Senior Research Analyst at the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow), is the author of many articles on Islam in the North Caucasus (in English and Russian), and a contributor to the book Islam in North Caucasus: History and Present Time, ed. by Islam Tekushev (2011, in Russian).
John Russell is Emeritus Professor of Russian and Security Studies in Peace Studies at the University of Bradford, United Kingdom. He is author of Chechnya – Russia’s “War on Terror” (2007), and a number of journal articles on Chechnya in Europe-Asia Studies, Nationalities Papers, Third World Review, and others. He is preparing a monograph entitled Ramzan Kadyrov – “Son-king” of Chechnya?
Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski is the founder and Chief Editor of The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies (http://pipss.revues.org). She is a Research Associate at the CERCEC (EHESS/CNRS). For the past few years she has been conducting research on Chechnya war veterans.
Ekaterina Sokirianskaya (Ph.D.) is currently an Analyst for the International Crisis Group and a leading Russian expert on the North Caucasus, where she lived and has been extensively travelling to since 2003. Among her publications are: “Ideology and Conﬂict: Chechen Political Nationalism Prior To, and During, Ten Years of War,” in M. Gammer (ed.) Ethno-Nationalism, Islam and the State in the Caucasus (2008).
Walter Sperling (Dr. Phil.) teaches Russian and East European history at the Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany. He holds a Doctoral degree in History from the University of Bielefeld, Germany (2010). His ﬁrst book is devoted to railroads and re-imagination of space in the Russian Empire.
Currently he is working on his second monograph which explores the everyday life in Grozny before the War (1994).
Alice Szczepanikova is a Postdoctoral Researcher at CEVIPOL (Université libre de Bruxelles). Her research focuses on the relation between forced migration, gender, religiosity, and immigrant incorporation. Her articles about the Chechen diaspora in Europe were published in the Journal of xii Notes on contributors Refugee Studies, European Journal of Women’s Studies, Nationalities Papers, and others.
Mairbek Vatchagaev, President of the Association for Caucasian Studies (Paris, France) is an Analyst for The Jamestown Foundation (Washington, DC) and Co-editor of the Caucasus Survey (London, UK).
Acknowledgments This book has been made possible thanks to the support of a large number of people and institutions. First of all, the Paris city administration (Mairie de Paris) which funded a three-year research program entitled “Understanding Violence in Russia: War, Institutions, Society.” Thanks to this ﬁnancial support we have been able not only to publish this book, but also to carry on our own researches on Chechnya, and organize an international conference on the war in Chechnya in October 2012. Our activities have also beneﬁtted from the support of research centers, scientiﬁc journals or speciﬁc grants: the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme (Paris), Centre d’Etudes du Monde Russe, Caucasien et Centre-Européen (CERCEC, EHESS/CNRS, Paris), Université Libre de Bruxelles, Centre d’Etudes Franco-russe de Moscou, The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies, and the ACCES program of the French ministry of Higher Education and Research.
We would like to express our special thanks to the translators from French and Russian and the editors who worked hard and under time constraints to transﬁgure the authors’ thoughts into English. This book would not have been possible without Judith Andreyev, Ian Appleby, Katherine Booth, Martin Cruse, Roger Deplegde, Dilia Gumirova, and Catherine Librini.
We are grateful to all the contributors who have accepted to collaborate with us during the manuscript preparation process, and who have agreed to discuss and revise their chapters.
The cover picture has been provided by Maryvonne Arnaud, whose photographs on Chechnya are full of humanity – many thanks to her indeed.
A lot of ﬁeld work in Chechnya would not have been possible without the expertise, the knowledge, and the kindness of informants and interviewees. We can not thank each of them individually but they will ﬁnd here the expression of our deep gratitude.
The Editors Anne Le Huerou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey, and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski This page intentionally left blank Introduction In a little over twenty years, Chechnya has undergone two massive, bloody wars that have caused tens of thousands of dead, wounded, and disabled, and the virtually total destruction of its capital Grozny. This small republic on the southern borders of Russia, which proclaimed its independence in 1991 following the other Soviet republics, has also seen four pro-independence presidents and one installed by Moscow die violently since 1996.1 In the early years of this century, more than 100,000 men of the Russian Federation armed forces were deployed over a territory smaller than New Jersey. Even now, episodic armed confrontations have not stopped and asylum-seekers continue to ﬂee the region to seek refuge in Europe.