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«Sub Saharan Africa Tourism Industry Research Final Report November 18, 2009 Prepared by Dr. Louise Twining-Ward For World Bank, Washington, D.C. Task ...»

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Africa Region’s Finance and Private Sector Development

Department (AFTFP)

Sub Saharan Africa Tourism Industry Research

Final Report

November 18, 2009

Prepared by

Dr. Louise Twining-Ward

For World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Task Team Leader: Vincent Palmade, TTL and Lead Private Sector Development Specialist

Task Manager: Hannah R. Messerli, Senior Private Sector Development Specialist in Tourism

Final Report, November 2009

Sub Saharan Africa Tourism Industry Research

Table of Contents Summary of Findings 2 Executive Summary 2 Acknowledgements 2 Introduction 2


Global Trends in Tourism Demand 2 Tourism in Sub Saharan Africa 2 Tourism and Poverty Alleviation 2 Tourism and Competitiveness 2 RESULTS 2 Tourism Performance 2 Tourism Economics 2 Tourism Products 2 Accommodation 2 Airline Connections 2 ANALYSIS 2 Destination Groups 2


Level 1. Preconditions 2 Level 2. Enablers 2 Level 3. Attractors 2 Level 4. Enhancers 2 Level 5. Delighters 2 STRATEGIES 2 Level 1. Coping Strategies 2 Level 2. Enabling Strategies 2 Level 3. Growing Strategies 2 Level 4. Flourishing Strategies 2 Summary 2 Recommendations 2


APPENDIX 2 Methodology 2 Glossary 2 Country Profiles 2 List of Tables 2 Final Report, November 2009 Table 1. International Tourism Demand and Economic Impact 2004-2009 Table 2. International Tourist Arrivals by Region, 2000-2008 Table 3. Tourist Arrivals to Sub Saharan Africa by Rank and Region, 2007 Table 4. Key Source Markets for Long-haul Tourist Arrivals, 2007 Table 5. Long and Short-haul Arrivals to Sub Saharan Africa by Region, 2007 Table 6. Average Length of Stay and Purpose of Visit for Sub Saharan Countries, 2007 Table 7. Key Economic Indicators for Tourism in Sub Saharan Africa, 2007 and 2008 Table 8. Niche Tourism Products by Sub Saharan Country, 2009 Table 9. Long-haul Flight Connections to Sub Saharan Africa on Major Airlines by Population, 2009 Table 10. Sub Saharan Africa Destination Group Results, 2009 Table 11. Sub Saharan Africa Destination Group Ranking Scores, 2009 Table 12. List of Interviewees Table 13. List of Data Availability by Country and Data Type

List of Figures

Figure 1. Pie Chart of International Tourist Arrivals and Receipts by Region, 2008 Figure 2.

Map of Long-haul Tourist Arrivals, 2007 Figure 3. Pie Chart of Market Share of Top Five Long-haul Markets, 2007 Figure 4. Map of Key Source Market for Long-haul Tourist Arrivals, 2007 Figure 5. Pie Chart of Purpose of Visit for Visitors to Sub Saharan Africa, 2007 Figure 6. Pie Chart of Total Tourist Arrivals and Receipts, 2007 Figure 7. Map of the Contribution of Tourism to GDP in Sub Saharan Africa, 2007 Figure 8. Map of Tourism Employment in Sub Saharan Africa Figure 9. Map of Key Product Types in Sub Saharan Africa, 2009 Figure 10. Distribution of International and Regional Hotel Brands in Sub Saharan Africa by Region Figure 11. Number of Long-Haul Flights to Sub Saharan Africa per Week by Destination and Airline, 2009 Figure 12. Map of Sub Saharan Africa Destination Groups, 2009 Figure 13. Hierarchy of Destination Needs Figure 14. Strategies for Climbing the Destination Hierarchy

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Summary of Findings

1. Tourism is an extraordinary industry Tourism offers economic promise to even the most isolated wilderness. With low barriers to entry, a seasonal flow of visitors, a simple product, and consumption at the point of production, tourism has significant potential as a poverty alleviation tool.

2. Tourism is vital to the economy of Sub Saharan Africa More than 29 million tourists arrivals were recorded in Sub Saharan Africa in 2007. The tourism sector directly employs almost four million people.

3. Not all countries in the region have been equally successful in tourism While some countries have well-developed tourism industries, others have failed to generate significant revenues from tourism, despite having strong tourism products. Destinations can be grouped according to their tourism performance and potential.

4. East Africa and Southern Africa are the most successful tourism regions West Africa’s tourism sector is expected to grow the fastest over the next decade.1 Central Africa has not been successful in developing its tourism industry.

5. SSA has considerable potential for further growth Even with the global economic slowdown, Sub Saharan Africa’s travel and tourism industry is expected to achieve an annual growth rate of 5.5% over the next ten years. The world average of 4.1%.2

6. Key constraints to tourism include business climate, political support, and air access Ease of doing business, visas, political support for tourism, free movement of labor, quality of labor, land security, and air transport liberalization are all crucial to tourism development.

7. To develop tourism, destinations first need to get the basics right There are a number of fundamental preconditions that are needed for tourism to develop. These include political stability, health, and safety.

8. Before tourism can take off, some crucial enablers are needed Borders need to be accessible. Political support for tourism needs to be proactive. Air access needs to be viable. Standard accommodation needs to be in place.

9. To be competitive, tourism destinations need to attract guests and enhance experiences SSA tourism takes place in a global tourism marketplace and has to compete favorably with attractions, facilities, entertainment, and the cost of tourism products elsewhere in the world.

10. To be successful, SSA tourism has to delight visitors with high quality, innovative products Sub Saharan Africa has considerable tourism potential. Successful tourism, however, does not develop on its own. Strategies crucial to tourism’s long-term success are: service quality, product innovation, value for money, and intelligent marketing.

1 WTTC (2009) Travel and Tourism Economic Impact, Sub Saharan Africa, WTTC, London 2 UNWTO (2009) Tourism 2020 Vision, UNWTO, Madrid

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Executive Summary Tourism is widely regarded as one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world.

UNWTO estimates that tourism contributes 30% to world exports of services, 6% to all exports, and 5% to world GDP. Furthermore, early reports on the impact of the global economic crisis on tourism suggest the industry has proved more resilient than many other sectors. The long-term prospects for the sector also look good.

Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) receives a growing share of world tourist arrivals. More than 29 million tourists visited the region in 2007, generating more than US$21.8 billion in tourist receipts and contributing an average of 6% to GDP. SSA attracts more visitors than the Caribbean and Central America combined.

Tourist arrivals to the region over the next ten years are forecast to grow faster than the world average.

Some countries have excellent flight connections to long-haul destinations, a high level of political support for tourism, and simple visa requirements. These countries are performing well. Other countries can only be reached on expensive inter-regional flights, have little or no political support for tourism, have complex visa procedures; as a result they have almost no tourism industry at all.

The report provides a summary of the patterns of tourism success and failure in Sub Saharan Africa. It analyzes the information collected for the SSA Tourism Database, identifies the regions and destinations that are winners and losers, explains the constraints facing SSA tourism, and suggests strategies for the future.

Tourism Performance The report finds that SSA attracted just over 29 million tourists3 in 2007. The top five destinations for tourist arrivals are South Africa, Botswana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Mauritius. Southern Africa is the top SSA region for arrivals; it attracted just over 13 million visitors in 2007. East Africa received over 11 million visitors. West Africa received 4.6 million visitors, and Central Africa received only 762,000 visitors.4 Tourism Demand The report highlights the top five long-haul markets for SSA: France, UK, US, Germany, and Portugal. France is the most important long-haul source market for 18 Sub Saharan countries. Burkina Faso, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Senegal are the most significant destinations for French visitors. UK visitors are the main long-haul tourists to South Africa, Botswana, Kenya, The Gambia, Zambia, and Malawi. The US is the dominant source market for Ghana, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Portuguese visitors mainly travel to Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe. German visitors dominate long-haul arrivals in Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland. Smaller markets for Sub Saharan Africa include the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, India, Canada, and Ireland. Emerging markets for SSA include Spain, Australia, India, China, and Russia.

3 International arrivals are all visitors recorded at border crossings staying one night or more by region regardless of their purpose of visit or country of origin. Data sources include UNWTO and National Tourism Offices.

4 Based on UNWTO 2007 figures as 2008 figures are not available for all countries

6 Final Report, November 2009

The report notes that many countries in the region, particularly French-speaking countries, are reliant on just one long-haul source market.5 This makes these SSA destinations vulnerable to changes in market demand and to economic downturns.

The report finds that the average length of stay for tourists in SSA is 5.6 nights. Leisure tourism is predominant in East and Southern Africa. West and Central Africa have only small pockets of leisure tourism but attract significant numbers of business tourists.6 Destinations with a higher percentage of leisure visitors tend to have a longer length of stay. SSA island countries were found to have a longer length of stay and a larger percentage of leisure visitors than landlocked destinations.

Tourism Economics The report studies three main indicators of tourism’s economic impact: tourism receipts, the contribution of tourism to GDP, and tourism employment. Tourism receipts were estimated to be US$21.8 billion for SSA in 2007. Southern Africa had the most tourism receipts, US$11 billion, a little under half of all receipts for the region. East Africa had US$7.4 billion in tourist receipts, West Africa US$2.6 billion, and Central Africa US$680 million. Countries that perform considerably better7 on tourist receipts than they do on tourist arrivals include: Angola, Cameroon, Tanzania, Madagascar, Ethiopia, Seychelles, and Ghana. This is a good indication of the competitiveness of these destinations.

The average contribution of tourism to GDP across SSA is 5.9%. Tourism’s contribution to GDP is highest in Seychelles at 50.3% and lowest in Sudan at 0.6%.

The report finds that just under half of all SSA’s travel and tourism jobs are located in East Africa.

Southern Africa reports 527,000 jobs. In West Africa, Nigeria has the most tourism employment, 287,000.

Central Africa has only 100,000 tourism jobs, half of them in Cameroon. Tourism employment appears to have grown the fastest in Mauritius over the last five years. WTTC expect Seychelles, Namibia, Togo, Zambia, and Ghana to have the fastest growth in tourism employment in 2009.

Tourism Products The SSA Tourism Database divides tourism products into five groups for analysis and mapping: safari (defined as “big-five–watching” from jeep, elephant, or on foot), other nature products (includes sightseeing, hiking, birdwatching, and tracking gorillas/chimpanzees), resort (beach tourism, lake tourism, and watersports), cultural products (archeology, village tourism, cultural heritage, historic architecture, and traditional markets), or business products (conferences, meetings, and trade).

Safari tourism is a key product for East Africa and Southern Africa. The main East Africa safari destinations are Kenya and Tanzania. Resort tourism is also a key product in East Africa. The main East Africa resort destinations are Mauritius, Seychelles, and Mozambique. West Africa has small pockets of resort tourism in Cape Verde, Senegal, and The Gambia but mainly attracts business tourists. In Central Africa there is almost no resort or safari tourism, but business tourism is growing. Angola, Cameroon, Chad, and Republic of Congo are business destinations. Cultural tourism is perhaps the most underdeveloped key product. Every country has some cultural heritage attractions, indigenous culture, and/or craft products. Cultural tourism has the most potential in the Sahel countries of West and East Africa.

In addition to the main types of products mapped above, SSA offers a large range of nature, cultural, business, and resort-based niche products. Examples include archeological expeditions in Sudan and Ethiopia, fishing in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau, and trophy-hunting in South Africa. Where SSA appears to have a distinct competitive advantage, is in the delivery of combination products. Comboholidays which combine and extend traditional products with experience-based add-ons, are SSA’s emerging “trump card”. Combo-holidays offer multiple experiences, and appeal to the growing segment of 5 “Reliance” on one source market is when the largest market provides more than twice as many tourist arrivals as the secondary market 6 See Table 3. for list of countries in each region 7 Countries whose SSA rank for tourist receipts in 2007 is ten or more places higher than their SSA rank for tourist arrivals

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the market that is well-traveled, active, and interested in holidays that combine relaxation with adventure, culture, nature, or business.

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