WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 19 |

«A Master’s Thesis by SEBAHAT BULDUK Department of International Relations Bilkent University Ankara September 2009 To my parents and Ertuğrul ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

TRANSFORMATION OF NATO IN THE FACE OF TRANSNATIONAL

TERRORISM

A Master’s Thesis

by

SEBAHAT BULDUK

Department of

International Relations

Bilkent University

Ankara

September 2009

To my parents and Ertuğrul

TRANSFORMATION OF NATO IN THE FACE OF

TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM

The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University by Sebahat BULDUK In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF ARTS

In

THE DEPARTMENT OF

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

BILKENT UNIVERSITY

ANKARA

September 2009 I certify that I have read this thesis and have found that it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in International Relations.

Assoc. Prof. Ersel AYDINLI Supervisor I certify that I have read this thesis and have found that it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in International Relations.

Asst. Prof. Tarık OĞUZLU Examining Committee Member I certify that I have read this thesis and have found that it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in International Relations.

Asst. Prof. Aylin GÜNEY Examining Committee Member Approval of the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences Prof. Dr. Erdal Erel Director

ABSTRACT

TRANSFORMATION OF NATO IN THE FACE OF TRANSNATIONAL

TERORISM

Bulduk, Sebahat M.A. Department of International Relations Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Ersel Aydınlı September 2009 Transnational terrorism with special reference to the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the territory of the United States has significant impacts on NATO’s approach to terrorism at rhetorical, practical and institutional levels. This thesis describes and explains the role of transnational terrorism on NATO’s transformation process, which intensified with the end of Cold War era. The Alliance’s 1991 and 1999 Strategic Concepts already defined terrorism as one of the risks to the Allies’ security. However, NATO began to actively engage in fighting against terrorism after the September 11 attacks. Just after 9/11, NATO for the first time in its history invoked Article 5, which is the collective defense clause of the Washington Treaty.

Particularly, the Prague Summit held in 2002 has been catalyst for the transformation of Alliance into an organization that is more adaptive to the new security environment where the threats are less likely to be state-centric. In the assessment, until September 11, 2001, terrorism did not have a priority on the NATO’s agenda.

Then, after the dramatic assaults, almost every step in the Alliance has been taken in the name of fighting against terrorism. The creation of the NATO Response Force, Terrorist Threat Intelligence Unit and further a new “Allied Command Transformation” are several examples in this regard. Basically, 9/11 demonstrated that transnational terrorism constitutes a very serious threat even for a super power, nobody is immune from terrorism and the approach to terrorism as a domestic threat is no longer applicable.

Key words: new terrorism, NATO and transformation, September 11 attacks, Prague Summit, Afghanistan.

–  –  –

NATO’NUN SINIROTESI TERORİZM KARSISINDA DÖNÜŞÜMÜ

Bulduk, Sebahat Yüksek Lisans, Uluslararası İlişkiler Bölümü Tez Yöneticisi: Assoc. Prof. Ersel Aydınlı Eylül 2009 Transnasyonel terör, özellikle 11 Eylül 2001 tarihinde Amerika’ya düzenlenen terörist saldırılar başta olmak üzere, NATO’nun teröre yaklaşımında söylemsel, operasyonel ve kurumsal düzeyde önemli değişikliklere yol açmıştır. Bu tez çalışması, NATO’nun Soğuk Savaş sonrasında başlayan dönüşüm sürecinde transnasyonel terörün rolünü tanımlamaya ve açıklamaya çalışmaktadır. İttifak’ın 1991 yılında kabul edilmiş ve 1999 yılında gözden geçirilmiş Stratejik Konseptleri, terörü önceden NATO’nun güvenliğine yönelik tehditlerden biri olarak kabul etse de, İttifak’ın 11 Eylül’e verdiği cevapla, NATO terörle mücadeleye aktif olarak katılmaya başlamıştır. 9/11’den sonra İttifak, tarihinde ilk defa Vaşington Andlaşmasının kolektif savunmayı öngören 5. maddesini hayata geçirmiştir.

Özellikle 2002 yılında düzenlenen Prag Zirvesi, NATO’nun devlet eksenli olmaktan uzaklaşan güvenlik tehditleri karşısında, daha uyumlu bir örgüte dönüşümünde bir tür katalist olmuştur. Değerlendirme olarak, 11 Eylül 2001’e kadar terörizm, NATO’nun ajandasında öncelikli bir yere sahip olmamıştır. Dramatik saldırılardan sonra ise İttifak içindeki hemen tüm kararlar terörle mücadele doğrultusunda alınmıştır. NATO Mukabele Kuvveti, Terör Tehdidi İstihbarat Birimi ve yeni “Müttefik Transformasyon Komutanlığı”nın kurulması bu konudaki örneklerden bazılarıdır. 11 Eylül, terörün artık süper güç bir ülke için bile ciddi tehlike arzettiğini, kimsenin terörden muaf olmadığını ve terörün yerel bir tehdit olarak görüldüğü anlayışın artık geçerli bulunmadığını göstermiştir.





Anahtar Kelimeler: yeni terörizm, NATO ve dönüşüm, 11 Eylül 2001 saldırıları, Prag Zirvesi, Afganistan.

–  –  –

First of all I would like to render my thanks and appreciation to my supervisor Ersel Aydınlı for his support and guidance throughout the research period.

His comments and remarks on the initial drafts have been crucial for structuring the thesis. Without his understanding and encouragement, I could not have managed to complete this project. Furthermore, it is a pleasure to thank Asst. Prof. Tarık Oğuzlu and Asst. Prof Aylin Güney for having accepted to take part in my thesis committee.

Special thanks go to my lovely fiancée Ertuğrul Demirci and my parents for their continuous support, encouragement and motivation in really hard times I lived through.

I am really grateful to Tomur Bayer, the General Director of the International Security Affairs and to Ahmet Muhtar Gün, the Vice General Director of OSCE, Arms Control and Disarmament Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey for their precious advices and help. Indeed, I benefited from their wide knowledge. I would also like to extend my thanks to Colonel Mete Tahmisoğlu for his support and kind conversations he held with me about my thesis.

I thank TUBİTAK for financing a significant part of my graduate studies.

Last but not least, I am forever in dept to my friends for their support, friendship and inspiration while I was preparing this thesis: Meryem Tığrak, my roommates Özge Wambach, Ceren Baran and Berfin Çıtırıkadıoğlu.

–  –  –

ABSTRACT

ÖZET

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………...viii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II: THE CONCEPT OF NEW TERRORISM WITHIN THE

FRAMEWORK OF TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM……………………………6

2.1 The Concept of Security in a Globalized World………………………..6

2.2 Transnationalization of Insecurity………………………………………10

2.3 Chancing Face of Terrorism…………………………………………… 13 2.3.1 Traditional versus Contemporary Terrorism………………… 13 2.3.2 State Sponsored Terrorism…………………………………….15

2.4 The Effect of Globalization on Transnational Terrorism………………..16

2.5 New Terrorism…………………………………………………………..18 2.5.1 New Security Dilemma………………………………………..18 2.5.2 The Characteristics of New Terrorism

2.5.3 New Wars in the Age of New Terrorism

2.6 Al-Qaeda Network with the Outrageous Effect of the September 11 Attacks………………………………………………………………………34

CHAPTER III: NATO’S APPROACH TO TERRORSIM BEFORE SEPTEMBER

11, 2001……………………………………………………………………………..40

3.1 NATO and Its Missions During the Cold War………………………… 40 3.1.1 The Origins of the Alliance……………………………………40 3.1.2 The Security Tasks of the Alliance……………………………41

3.2 NATO’s Tasks and Missions in the post Cold War Period……………..44 3.2.1 Keeping NATO and Redefining Collective Defense………….44 3.2.2 Arms control and WMD………………………………………45 vi 3.2.3 Enlargement Policy: Cooperation with Former Adversaries and Other non-NATO Nations…………………………………………...49 3.2.3.1 Partnership for Peace (PfP) Initiative………………..52 3.2.3.2 Membership Action Plan (MAP)…………………….53 3.2.4 NATO and the Balkans: Crisis Management and Peace Operations…………………………………………………………...53 3.2.5 Growing European Independency through ESDP……………..56

3.3 NATO’s Approach to the Nature of Terrorism………………………… 60

3.4 1991 Strategic Concept………………………………………………… 65

3.5 1999 Strategic Concept………………………………………………… 67

CHAPTER IV: TRANSFORMATION OF NATO AT THE RHETORICAL AND

PRACTICAL LEVELS.…………………………………………………………….71

4.1 Transformation at the Rhetorical Level…………………………………72 4.1.1 Rhetorical Transformation about Nature of the Threat….…….73 4.1.2 Rhetorical Transformation on the Response to Terrorism…… 77 4.1.2.1 Condemning the Attacks…………………………… 77 4.1.2.2 Emphasizing Solidarity, Unity and Readiness……....78 4.1.2.3 Comprehensive Approach…………………………...81 4.1.2.4 A Further Step: Revising Strategic Concept………...81

4.2 Transformation at the Practical Level…………………………………...82 4.2.1 Military Concept Against Terrorism…………………………..84 4.2.2 Combating Terrorism in the Mediterranean…………………...86 4.2.3 Deployment of ISAF Mission in Afghanistan…………………89 4.2.4 An Assessment of ISAF Mission……………………………...93 4.2.5 Establishment of NATO Training Mission in Iraq……………94

CHAPTER V: TRANSFORMATION OF NATO AT THE INSTITUTIONAL

LEVEL………………………………………………………………………………97

5.1 NATO’s Institutional Transformation Efforts After the Cold War……..97

5.2 NATO’s Institutional Transformation After the September 11, 2001…100 5.2.1 Transformation at the Force Level…………………………...100 5.2.1.1 Prague Capabilities Commitment…………………..100 5.2.1.2 NATO Response Force……………………………..103 5.2.2 Transformation at the Command Level……………………...108 5.2.2.1 The New Command Structure ……………………..110 5.2.3 Transformation at the Structural Level……………………...113 5.2.3.1 Establishment of Center of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism…………………………………………………...113 5.2.3.2 Establishment of the Terrorist Threat Intelligence Unit…………………………………………………………115 5.2.3.3 Struggle against terrorism: an item on the NATORussia Council……………………………………………..116 CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION…………………………………………………...119 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

–  –  –

1. Activity profile of New and Old Terrorists……………………………………30

2. Five Capability Areas agreed with DCI………………………………………100

–  –  –

ACLANT : Allied Command Atlantic ACO : Allied Command Operations ACT : Allied Command Transformation AFNORTH : Allied Forces North Europe AFSOUTH : Allied Forces South Europe

–  –  –

AWACS : Airborne Warning and Control System CBRN : Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear CFSP : Common Foreign and Security Policy CIMIC : Civil Military Operation CJTF : Combined Joint Task Force CM : Consequence Management

–  –  –

COE DaT : Center of Excellence Defense Against Terrorism CPG : Comprehensive Political Guidance CSCE : Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe DCI : Defense Capabilities Initiative DPC : Defense Planning Committee

–  –  –

EADRCC : The Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Center ESDI : European Security and Defense Identity ESDP : European Security and Defense Policy EU OHQ : European Union Operations Headquarter

–  –  –

MC DaT : NATO’s Military Concept for Defense against Terrorism MCG : Mediterranean Cooperation Group MD : Mediterranean Dialogue NAC : North Atlantic Council NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO PA : NATO Parliament Assembly NBC : Nuclear, Biological and Chemical NCRS : NATO Crisis Response System NIWS : The NATO Intelligence and Warning System NPC : Nuclear Planning Group NRC : NATO-Russia Council

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 19 |


Similar works:

«Zhuping Liu June 2016 McCombs School of Business Mobile: (860) 336-8705 University of Texas at Austin Fax: (512) 471-1034 2110 Speedway Stop B6700 Zhuping.Liu@mccombs.utexas.edu Austin, Texas 78712-1275 sites.utexas.edu/zhuping-liu/ Education Ph.D., Marketing, 2017 (expected) McCombs School of Business, University of Texas at Austin Dissertation proposal defended in April 2016 Advisors: Vijay Mahajan and Frenkel ter Hofstede M.S., Statistics, 2012 Ph.D. student in Operations and Information...»

«Cash Intensive Businesses Audit Techniques Guide Chapter 16 Scrap Metal NOTE: This document is not an official pronouncement of the law or the position of the Service and can not be used, cited, or relied upon as such. This guide is current through the publication date. Since changes may have occurred after the publication date that would affect the accuracy of this document, no guarantees are made concerning the technical accuracy after the publication date. Contents Introduction General...»

«The Hidden Costs of Self-Signed SSL Certificates Why self-signed certificates are much costlier—and riskier—than working with a trusted security vendor Introduction Even when business is booming, smart companies always have an eye on the bottom line and look for ways to reduce costs. Security is not usually one of the first places companies look to trim expenses, but some IT professionals believe that they can easily lower cash outlays by eliminating third-party Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)...»

«Applying the Four-Eyes Principle to Management Decisions in the Manufacturing Sector: Are Large Family Firms One-Eye Blind? Structured Abstract Purpose: The present paper explores the application of the four-eyes principle (4EP) to management decisions in large family firms in the manufacturing sector, a heretofore neglected area of business and management research. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical analysis was first conducted of the 4EP in general and its application in family firms...»

«Hundredsofrealpersonalaccountsof GroupDiscussions&PersonalInterviews duringMBAadmissionstoIndia’sbestB schools Writtenby Compiledby LoadsofMBAAspirants ThePaGaLGuYMadCapzGroup PaGaLGuY.com Antholo gy Hundreds of real personal accounts of Group Discussions and Personal Interviews during MBA admissions to India’s best business schools. In this edition: The IIMs at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Calcutta, Lucknow, Indore & Kozhikode. Written by Loads of MBA aspirants Compiled by...»

«VIJAY G. SUBRAMANIAN EECS Dept., Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Tech L359, Evanston IL 60208-3118 USA. +18474675168(O),+18474914455(F), v-subramanian@northwestern.edu, http://users.eecs.northwestern.edu/~vjsubram EDUCATION Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign – October 1999. Dissertation: Broadband Fading Channels: Signal Burstiness and Capacity. Master of Science (Engineering) (M.Sc.(Eng)), Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute...»

«Announcement United States mix in english 100 articles, created at 2016-06-14 00:15 101 Janet Waldo, voice of The Jetsons' teen daughter Judy, dies age 96 The veteran actress's daughter Lucy Lee revealed her mother died on Sunday (1.02/12) Morning. She was diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumour five years ago but was still working at age 80. 2016-06-13 19:04 3KB www.dailymail.co.uk 102 Egyptian investigators say black boxes to emit signal until June 24 CAIRO, June 13 (Reuters) The black...»

«SHOULD SUBURBS HELP THEIR CENTRAL CITY? by Andrew F. Haughwout* and Robert P. Inman** April, 2002 ABSTRACT Should suburbs help finance the core public services of their central city? Previous arguments for such assistance have stressed spillovers from city services to suburban residents or the fact that suburban residents (should?) care about their city’s poor. We explore the validity of a third possible argument for such assistance, one now stressed by many large city mayors. Suburban...»

«State of Georgia Department of Transportation Signing and Marking Design Guidelines Signing and Marking Design Guidelines 9/22/2016 4.0 Atlanta, Georgia 30308 This document was developed as part of the continuing effort to provide guidance within the Georgia Department of Transportation in fulfilling its mission to provide a safe, efficient, and sustainable transportation system through dedicated teamwork and responsible leadership supporting economic development, environmental sensitivity and...»

«FADE IN: EXT. SUBURBIA NIGHT A beautiful late summer night. Crickets chirping, sprinklers sprinkling. We PAN across one particular lawn, up one particular tree, where we see THE PEEPER (Jon Lovitz) sitting on a limb. He has a bottle of wine, some sandwiches, a Walkman. Suddenly the lights turn on. PEEPER (whispering) Showtime! We see a young mother walk into the room outside the Peeper's window. She is wearing business attire. PEEPER (CONT'D) Rough day at the office Mrs. Dunleavy? (takes bite...»

«STLtoday.com Printer friendly Ethanol plants come with hidden cost. http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/emaf.nsf/Popup?ReadForm&db=stlto. PRINTER FRIENDLY [Print] [Close] Ethanol plants come with hidden cost: Water By Bill Lambrecht POST-DISPATCH WASHINGTON BUREAU CHIEF Sunday, Apr. 15 2007 ROGERSVILLE, Mo. — David Pitts doesn't begrudge the farmers and investors who see a new ethanol plant as a way to make some good money. He's just worried he won't have any water to drink when they're through....»

«13 Vijay K. Bhatia* & Christopher N. Candlin* Analysing Arbitration Laws across Legal Systems Abstract In this paper, the national Indian and Chinese statutes on arbitration are compared with the UNCITRAL Model Law. After a presentation of the GILD-MMC project, focus is especially on textual aspects indicating attitudes towards the relation between the administrative powers and the parties in commercial arbitration. Thus, looking at the features all-inclusiveness, information load, information...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.