«THE ADVANCED SCIENCE JOURNAL ECONOMIC MENTALITY OF UKRAINE: NATIONAL MEASUREMENTS O. Bondarenko Zaporizhzhya National Technical University, Ukraine ...»
THE ADVANCED SCIENCE JOURNAL
ECONOMIC MENTALITY OF UKRAINE:
Zaporizhzhya National Technical University, Ukraine
Social realities of modern Ukraine are conditioned by the features of the Ukrainian economical culture, that has its specific system values, displayed in national mentality, economical consciousness, social psychology, socio-economical space functioning. Cultural and historical form-buildings of national culture of Ukraine directly or indirectly, are reflected and become apparent, in all the spheres of economic life. Peculiar property of Ukrainian mentality is its historical and cultural development as a consequence of national archetypes’ existence, that is different, many-sided in essence and demonstration.
Introduction In the conceptual apparatus of social reality of modern Ukraine understanding with sociophilosophical, sociological, economic, political opinion, appear new categories, concepts, terms. They are designed to capture and reflect new social realities. One of these concepts is the concept of mentality (the mental setup). First used in 1856 by R. Emerson, the concept of "mentality" is now widely used for research and analysis of various social life aspects: economics, politics, ideology, etc.
Human’s way of thinking – that in the broadest sense refers to the mental – is considered to be the basis for identifying the key characteristics of its life in general, situational and strategic behavior, laying-on of aims system building, showing of different emotions.
Mentality is, first of all, a term with national content. By O.Spengler, national culture is a product of human spirit of certain nation. And as it is, it reflects a certain system of valued orientations, is the reflection of sense and ways of this nation’s social history and specific, peculiar exactly to this nation, place of human in it. Mental foundations of any national culture are reflected in all spheres of national public life - from mythological subjects to the rules of state creation. They are embodied also in economic activity of national entities, in forms and mechanisms of society’s "economic" behavior as a whole and as an individual.
Today it is important to understand how the mentality of Ukraine has been changing during last years of its socio-political history, which of its features hinder or facilitate democratic development of the country, massive formation of free personality. For example, it is assumed that Ukrainian people are individualistic more over the other Eastern Slavs and therefore are able to integrate into Europe more quickly and more successfully develop market relations – but with that mental background of socio-economic processes in Ukraine itself is not investigated deeply enough. Or: why among national scientists is common a statement about "non-classical" character of Ukrainian nation existence [24, p.
134]. Today a lot of such questions exist. Answers to those can be given by exploring basic "corner" aspects of nature, history and contemporary of national economic mentality of Ukraine.
Background The issue of national mentality has become very popular in Ukraine in recent years. But nevertheless there is still much unknown, obscure, unexplored. Modern Ukrainian scientists of various social knowledge fields – philosophers, culturologists, political scientists, sociologists, historians, economists – M.Popovych, S.Krymskiy, S.Proleyev, V.Pylypenko, R.Dodonov, I.Bychko, O.Zabuzhko, E.Golovakha, N.Sobolev, A.Donchenko, D.Bogynia, B.Khramova and others, focusing on research of mental issue, in their works show mentality as such that gets national ethnic flavor, arising attribute of social and psychological dimension of Ukrainian society. Range of mental issues in their works is represented as a study of "subjective reality" of Ukrainian society, effectiveness of mentality idea is derived from the comparison of "psychic", "psychological", "spiritual" in social development with societal, when "psychological approach allows you to monitor overall significant trends from personal to global level of social development" [31, p. 107]. However, a holistic VOLUME 2010 ISSUE 1 5 ISSN 2219-7478 conceptual vision of national mentality, especially of national economic mentality, of Ukraine hasn’t been formed yet. Concerning economic mentality of Ukraine there are many problems and issues that require solution, need further theoretical developments.
Currently monographic works that would be specifically concentrated on studying of nature and features of Ukrainian national economic mentality do not almost exist. Domestic researchers studied either a phenomenon of ethnic mentality of Ukraine (R.Dodonov), or a matching question of Ukrainian and European mentality with various content aspects (I.Bychko), or certain parts of mentality (A.Reshetnychenko, A.Ruchka) and others. Questions that are close to economic mentality phenomenon studying, are actively investigated by leading domestic sociologists, in particular V.Pylypenko, O.Donchenko, N.Zlobin, L.Aza, N.Sobolev, Y.Sayenko, E.Suyimenko and others.
However, the needs of civil society building theory and practice in Ukraine put on the agenda studying of the economic national mentality as an independent and self-sufficient area of Ukrainian social reality, exploring of its nature and determining the specific variety of rice, in particular, in terms of its drawing to entrepreneurial characteristics and algorithms of market awareness purely, predisposition to modern socio-economic models of human behavior. It is important to understand what are essential features of Ukrainian national economic mentality, historical and cultural foundations of these features, in which of the phenomenon, codes, archetype, they appear, how has been changing economic mentality within the historical development of the nation, which properties acquired, which were subjected to transformation. Study of national economic mentality of Ukraine is an interesting theoretical and practical problem today.
Thus, clarifying nature and characteristics of national economic mentality of Ukraine, which in many aspects is "responsible" for the process of development and self-development of economic areas of Ukraine (which is the aim of this article) is important, presents theoretical and practical interest, and has prospects for further scientific development of this problem.
Our frameworks for representing The issue of national and national economic mentality of Ukraine, from the position of social philosophy and social skills, has been being developed by author a relatively long time. The essence of national economic mentality of Ukraine, its specific features, mechanisms of formation and reproduction, the current state and prospects of its development in the near future, measure of its compliance with "classic" models of European and American models of economic mentality and so on have become the subject of author’s scientific monographs [1-3] and her main scientific articles [4-16, 20-21]. In addition, the subject of our interest has also become features of Ukrainian national mentality realization in the socio-political public sphere of modern Ukraine [17-19].
Discussion of a problem Mentality is a "system of images and ideas that in different countries are combined in different ways, but always underlying human understanding of the world and its place in it and, consequently, determine actions and behavior of people" [31, p. 34]. Mentality is a kind of cultural determinant of millions of people behavior loyal to their "code" that has historically been formed in any social situations. Mentality is a little general "mental toolkit", a set of mental skills, social and psychological settings, ideas and habits of people belonging to particular social community . Thanks to mentality national social actors perceive the surrounding reality monotonously, evaluate it and act in it according to certain settled rules and models of behavior, adequately perceive and understand each other. According to S.Krymskiy, under the mentality of the nation should be understood “not so much and not only features of psychological characteristics of people (the phenomenon of "national soul"), as forming of the national consciousness that meet a certain way of life and existential experience” [31, p. 278]. Due to differences in nations mentality, national forms of socio-economic (that interested us in the first place), and other experience is transmitted from generation to generation. Mentality allows us to understand the meaning of nation’s business (economic) activities, reflects a particular attitude to work, to property, etc.
Ukrainian national mentality, as a unique cultural phenomenon of mankind mentality history, appears to be functionally viable, richly broad, multifaceted, and multilateral for all essential features and forms of manifestation of these phenomenon features.
Nation’s mentality is the pillars of the national consciousness and identity. As algorithmic component of mind, it appears in the ability to choose (select, sort) data, resulting in birth of knowledge (awareness, perception). Because of mentality, nation is able to make a choice – between 6 ADVANCEDSCIENCE.ORG
THE ADVANCED SCIENCE JOURNALgood and evil, the choice of its elites (political, business, intellectual, spiritual), choose the type of government, types of economic and social activities, lifestyle choices, etc. And a separate personality, and people in general are guided by intellect, desires, needs, interests, feelings, and benefits in their lives – because of what social reality appears to be a consequence of expedient social activity of overcoming the social uncertainty content and chaos. Behavior and thinking archetypes manifested in fantasies and dreams, political aspirations and economic objectives, in religious hopes and scientific achievements, in desires and dreams. As some collective unconscious (with K.Jung), they are transmitted from generation to generation and play an important role in life of society and human. In conscience they emerge in a great number of collective and individual characters and symbols, of national social feelings, symbolic matrices and concepts directly related to conscious levels, which are coded, formalized models and applications of human behavior, psyche constructs of individuals’ mental nature.
Economic mentality is a mentality that "serves" economic sphere (economic level) of human and society life.
Let's go with this definition of economic mentality. Economic mentality is a generalized notion to represent a sustainable thinking order of person (people) and the individual-psychological and socio-psychological structure organization of its (their) individual in the sphere of economic of society sphere. This thinking order, and this "psychology" structure combine a conscious (refers to algorithms, models, "habits" of thinking and behavior) and unconscious (such that "works" automatically at the level of thinking and behavior automatisms) in person’s perception of certain real or fancied (conditional) situations, where it is or which are "programmed" as a strategy of behavior, – and all of this in adapting to economic sphere of human and society life.
This combination of mental and behavioral skills, social- and individual-psychological settings, ideas and habits of people (in the sphere of economic activity) is a certain integrity that has quite certain internal "content", rather tightly combines its component "elements", has clear form making principle – and brings us to generalization of the economic mentality concept. Designated structural hierarchy of economic mentality elements presupposes the existence of more fundamental and persistent components that form its basis (a certain mental archetype), as well as more surface and moving, which may be in the state of origin, evolutionary change or destruction.
Because the mentality of any nation is entrenched in the initial conditions of its life, national economic mentality, thus, is an essential socio-cultural component of the national society, the functioning of which it reflects with economics language (principles of management), through economic activity of its representatives. Economic mentality of certain nation exists, develops, being reproduced with pace of this nation’s social history, absorbing, reflecting and covering all the external events and internal factors of this history, always remaining an important feature of economic (business) activity of its carriers.
Mentality is worth bringing it into the powerful levers of socio-economic development, significant forces of socio-economic processes of social life. At the beginning of the twentieth century well-known Ukrainian economist and social thinker M.I.Tugan-Baranowski pointed out that the mechanisms and content of society’s economic activity in many respects is governed by the world of human psychological feelings, labor traditions, religious doctrine, national identity and character, spiritual structure of personality, i.e. that is the essence of mental phenomena. Mental context of socio-economic human life, therefore, is perceived as complex and multifactorial. When the place of "economic person" doctrine finally won the doctrine of "social person" as a result in the sphere of economic (business) activity human was perceived as such that was being effected by a complex set of factors, the nature of which reaches a variety of social and philosophical studies and social and psychological (mental) depths. Personality of national public entity of socio-economic activity was understood as a complex whole. Economic mentality of such national entities should be interpreted by the result of nation’s historical and cultural development and conditioned by socio-cultural factors in national history. Features of national character, historical destiny of the country, stereotypes of the world perception, solutions to various social objectives, certain cultural stereotypes, etc. – all these should be considered in the "alarm" of nation’s economic mentality the in the field of socio-economic realities of its life.
But previously, there are more several important points.