«Surachai Jewcharoensakul Faculty of Education, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand Thai Home Economic Association, Bangkok, Thailand ...»
TOURIST INDUSTRY PROMOTION: AIM TO INTRODUCE
THAI FOODS MATCHING WITH NORTHERN PROGRAM’S
TOURS TO SERVE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
Faculty of Education, Kasetsart University,
Bangkok, 10900, Thailand
Thai Home Economic Association, Bangkok, Thailand
The promotion of Tourist industry and “Thai food to the world” became as an impacted of socioeconomic development in Thailand, due to the tourist industry had become important part to bring about the economic growth in Thailand, included such businesses; hotels, restaurants, logistic and souvenirs’ business. Which stake holders of the whole process of tourist industries of government and privates sectors needed to concern to encourage tourist destination, to say longer and to satisfy traveling in Thailand. The objective of the study was to find 1) To survey tours’ companies in Thailand located in such part of the nation 2) To survey the symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces of Thailand, in order to indicate as culinary tourism in the future and 3) To survey local ingredients and cooking style of Northern foods, which indicated as symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces of Thailand. The population was tours companies’ owners and restaurants’ owners. Tour’s companies registered list with Thai Tourist Office, traveling brochure and Interviewing was tool for data collection. The result of the study revealed that all most half of the tours’ companies in the Thailand had established in Bangkok and central part of Thailand, most of the tourists always stop in Bangkok, then extend traveling to the country side later. Northern provinces of Thailand, had divided into 2 parts of 1) upper Northern provinces, which had related history of Lan-Na territory, Chiengmai was the capital. They had their own language, culture and ceremony. 2) Lower Northern provinces had related history of Sukhothai regime. Symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces of Thailand, in order to indicate as culinary tourism in the future found that; upper Northern provinces had influenced by Lan-Na regime with menus, ingredients and cooking processes. “Khan-Tok dinner” was represented with Lan-Na food. Lower Northern provinces served Sukhothai soup noodle, Cha-kang-laos soup noodle and Khao-kab. Northern provinces always served meal with crispy pork skin. Local ingredients and cooking style of Northern foods, which indicated as symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces had separately different. Northern part of Thailand had such different kind of fruits and vegetable, which could be promoted as tourist destination for the Northern tour routing in future. Promotion of tourist industry with foods concern, as the symbol of Northern provinces, because those foods known as delicious for most of the customers, neat or interesting presentation and easy to promote as symbol of the places, but the local foods with special need to learn with special taste and aroma would be second step for the tourists whom need to gain in-depth of Northern culture experiences. As Thai foods had good reputation in part of Thai culture, for the future tourist promotion we may concern to add up foods to promote tourist industry in Thailand.
KEYWORDS Tourist Industry Promotion, Thai Food, Sustainable Tourism
The promotion of Tourist industry and “Thai food to the world” became as an impacted of socioeconomic development in Thailand, due to the tourist industry had become the most important part to bring about the economic growth in Thailand with related to such businesses; hotels, restaurants, logistic, souvenirs and all of tourists attraction’s businesses. Which stake holders of the whole process of tourist industries of government and privates sectors needed to concern to encourage fruitful tourist destinations to continue remaining of good quality and top grade of tourist destination for all the tourists around the world, to say longer, to satisfy traveling in Thailand in all kind of activities and by the same time serve individual and community development as sustainable development for long future.
In 2009 tourist industry had brought about the economic growth more than 17,577 million USD, or about 8.5 % export value in Thailand. The tourist industry had employed more than 2 million labors or 5.8 GDP, (Thammasart University,
2009) which absorb unemployed condition in high level.
Thailand had the advantages of tourist destination such as; natural sightseeing, historical, cultural and specifically cities sightseeing. The tourist industry in Thailand had developed furthered tourist destinations in such perspectives; adventure tourism, ecotourism, spiritual tourism, sport tourism and health tourism. The strategic to develop tourist industry in Thailand Act of Economic and Social Development in 2012-2016 concern the sustainable development in all sectors, (The ministry of tourism and sport, 2011) value added of tourist products through the idea of creative economic and innovation tourist destination development became necessary, to chair community responsibility to serve sustainable tourism, such as the promotion activities for local tourist attractions; home stay by community’s management and local products development as One Tambol (district) One Produce (OTOP), in order to serve lifelong learning and sustainable development, according to the Thai Present King expression of “Blow up from inside, an idea to develop human and community as sustainable development” (The Chaipattana Foundation Jurnal: 2003). Then the research of “Tourist Industry Promotion: Aim to Introduce Thai Foods Matching with Tours programs to Serve Sustainable Tourism” is necessary, in order to introducing Thai foods or Thai culinary as tourist destination was necessary to maintain tourist to stay longer period of time, to satisfy of traveling and staying in Thailand.
The objectives of this study are: 1) to survey tours’ companies in Thailand located in such part of the nation, 2) to survey the symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces of Thailand, in order to indicate as culinary tourism in the future, and 3) to survey local ingredients and cooking style of Northern foods, which indicated as symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces of Thailand
KNOWLEDGE AND THEORIES SUPPORTED
1. Knowledge management of local Thai food to support tourist industry had done within 5 steps; 1) Exploration local wisdom and knowledge within normal life style, then capture and synthesis knowledge with the history, community’s interests and the state of the evidences to 2) Identify and organize the data, then focus group and 3) Exchange and apply knowledge with the subject matters in the community for conclusion of the explicit knowledge 4) Transfer and share knowledge with various medias 5) Collect and store knowledge as best practice for the nation database and as lesson to learn in future (Henrie and Hedgepeth, (2003), Nonaka and Takeuchi, (2004), Vichan Panich, (2002), and Pravet Vasri, (2002).
2. Self – sufficient economy theory: means “Having enough to live on and to live for”. His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the present King of Thailand said, (The Chai-Pattana Foundation: 2003). The theory was promoted to guide Thai people to the concerns of living for oneself and to not cause problems to others.
The main concept was to convince Thai people to be conscious by working to support oneself, then form a social network for the others’ needs, such as to sell whatever has been leftover. One of the concepts of sustainable development in Thailand.
3. Thailand country divided in to 5 parts of Northern, Northeastern, Central, Eastern and Southern provinces, within 77 provinces.
4. Eating out always done for tourist activities, nearly a hundred percent of tourists dine out whenever they traveling and the local foods was one of the motivating factor in choosing a tourist destination. (Craig Schmantowsky, 2012)
5. World standard concerned: as we had learned that, “We are what we eat” meant that if we consumed healthy food, bring us good health, not to get sick, have happy life, safe individual and safe government budget to pay hospital expenses. Those concerned also met the International Standard Organization’s requirement for the global business as well as could be part of the culinary tourism in future.
The population was tours’ companies’ owners and restaurants’ owners in the Northern provinces in Thailand, within 14 provinces.
- Upper Northern provinces include 8 provinces; Chiengmai, Chiengrai, Mae-Hongson, Pra, Nan, Payaow, Lampang and Lampoon
- Lower Northern provinces include 6 provinces; Sukhothai, Pissanulok, Ud-Taradit, Tak, Kampangpet, and Pechaboon Tool for data collections Tour’s companies registered list with Thai Tourist Office, traveling brochure and Interview form was tool for data collection.
Statistical analysis Frequency, percentage, means and standard deviation was statistical tool for data analysis.
The result of the study revealed that all most two fifth of the tours’ companies in the Thailand (39.10%) had established in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand. More than one third (35.41%) established in the Southern part of Thailand, and 17% were established in the Northern part of Thailand. (Table 1)
There were almost a half of the tour’s companies in Thailand located in the central part of Thailand (43.94%), which Bangkok is the capital, more than one third of the tour’s companies located in the southern of Thailand (35.42%), according to the interviewing of the tour’s companies owners, found that, most of the tourists always stop in Bangkok, then extend traveling to the country side later, even though the tourists always traveling to the northern part of Thailand, but, still purchased programs tours form Bangkok.
Southern provinces had more tour’s companies, was changed because of direct flight to the South of Thailand, then the tourist could fly directly to southern part instead of starting from Bangkok, also due to the good reputation of tourist destination in the southern part, such as Puket, Krabi and Trang with beautiful natural resources and peaceful beach. Eastern provinces became to have more tour companies might be because of the government indicated the Eastern part of Thailand to be manufacturing and heavy industry plant, which effected to the economic growth and more International companies from abroad came to settle heavy industry plant, in the Eastern part of Thailand. In the Northeastern part of Thailand indicated as not wealthy area for years, because of the low quality of soil land and limited of rain water for cultivation, but the government had improved infrastructure and so on, then in the future after the people had gained income and economic of family and community, then the tour’s company my establish more in the future.
Northern provinces of Thailand, had divided into 2 parts of 1) upper Northern provinces included 8 provinces;
Chiengmai, Chiengrai, Mae-Hongson, Prae, Nan, Proyao, Lampoon and Lanmpang provinces. These 8 provinces located in the hill and mountain sight areas, which separated by the geography themselves. These 8 provinces also had related history of Lan-Na territory, which Chiengmai was the capital. They had their own speaking and writing language, culture and ceremony, before became ruled by the Ayuthaya and Rattanakosin regime of Siam, then the country of Thailand. 2) Lower Northern provinces included 6 provinces; Sukhothai, Pissanulok, Tak, Kampanped, Ud-Taradit and Pechaboon provinces. These 6 provinces located geography in flat land, but only Pechaboon province, located in the hilly and mountain area. All the 6 provinces in lower Northern provinces had related to the history of Sukhothai regime, and Sukhothai was the capital of Thailand for 213 years, at Christian era of 1157-1370 (the country of Siam, then Thailand was ruled by Sukhothai regime, then Ayuthaya regime, Thonbury regime and Rattankosin, at the present). The characteristic of language and human being of people at the lower Northern was quite different from such characteristics in the upper Northern part of Thailand.
Symbol and characteristic of food in the Northern provinces of Thailand, in order to indicate as culinary tourism in the future found that; foods and characteristics of upper Northern provinces had influenced by Lan-Na regime with menus, ingredients and cooking processes. 10 menus of foods in the upper Northern provinces shown as the following;
Khao-soi (noodle served in curry soup), Nam-ngew, Hung-ley curry, Sai-uaow (Thai northern sausage), Care curry, Lab, Ho curry, Nampic-Ong dip, Nampic-Noom dip, and Oorm curry. In the upper Northern provinces people always eat glutinous rice (sticky rice) instead of steam rice. “Khan-tok dinner” very well-known of Lan-Na food, was served as a set of dinner for individually, the foods served in “Khan-tok dinner” always served Hung-ley curry, Sai-uaow, NampicNoom dip or Nampic-Ong dip, Care curry or Oorm curry, Lab and/or Ho curry, to eat with glutinous rice. In the Northern part of Thailand never forget to serve crispy pork skin, to eat as side dish.