WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 30 |

«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Jackson, Susan Teresa Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Military Spending and the Washington Consensus: The

Unrecognized Link between Militarization and the Global

Political Economy

Item type text; Electronic Dissertation

Authors Jackson, Susan Teresa

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 20-Oct-2016 17:37:02 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/193513

MILITARY SPENDING AND THE WASHINGTON CONSENSUS: THE

UNRECOGNIZED LINK BETWEEN MILITARIZATION AND THE GLOBAL

POLITICAL ECONOMY

by Susan T. Jackson __________________

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Susan T. Jackson entitled Military Spending and the Washington Consensus: The Unrecognized Link between Militarization and the Global Political Economy and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Date: 07/30/2008 _______________________________________________________________________

Thomas Volgy Date: 07/30/2008 _______________________________________________________________________

V. Spike Peterson Date: 07/30/2008 _______________________________________________________________________

Charles Ragin Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

________________________________________________ Date: 07/30/2008 Dissertation Director: Thomas Volgy

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.

–  –  –

As with any major undertaking, it often is not difficult to know where to begin with thanks, though it often is difficult to know where to end. For my committee members who have been more supportive than I could have expected or hoped, I owe you my profound thanks. Tom Volgy, Spike Peterson, and Charles Ragin helped me get through what is normally a trying experience that turned into an ordeal, with the birth of two children, three major household moves, a career lay-off of the family breadwinner, and other such life happenings that challenged my ability to remain continuously focused and motivated. Their never-ending encouragement and guidance gave me the energy required to fulfill my need to complete this project and to begin my journey into post-doctoral life.

I also want to thank everyone who was so helpful with providing timely answers to my often difficult and esoteric questions. In (rough) order of appearance, these people include Rob Stewart-Ingersoll; John Feffer; the folks at SIPRI (especially Catalina Perdomo); Frida Berrigan of the World Policy Institute; Thomas Jackson and Nic Marsh of NISAT; Gary Goertz; Kathy Powers; Paul Ingram and David Isenberg of BASIC;

Tania Inowlocki of the Small Arms Survey; Juliana Horowitz of the Pew Research Center for People and the Press; Paul Bailey of the ILO; Ronald Steenblik of the Global Subsidies Initiative of the International Institute for Sustainable Development; Andrew Shrank; David Steinberg; Ronen Palan; Donal Godfrey of OECD; Yingxin Wu; and Anthony Kim of the Heritage Foundation. On the administrative side, I thank Vickie Healey in the Political Science Department’s office at the University of Arizona. Without her, three years of dissertation work away from my home institution would have been a paperwork nightmare. Lastly, I would like to thank the man who told me since information is expensive he could not provide me with any assistance. From him I learned that, as with most things in life, the scholarly endeavor is best advanced through openness and generosity. If anyone has been omitted from this list, my apologies in advance. I am sure in the years to come when I finish unpacking from the multitude of recent moves, I will find a more complete list of those who shared their expertise and interest when I needed it most. Until then, thank you, thank you everyone, though any error found herein should be attributed to me.





I guess I do know where to end and that would be with my family, the one I almost lost in my search for higher knowledge. I especially want to thank my life partner, Lon Pilot, who dealt with the tantrums (both mine and the kids’), all the late nights, being married to a geek, and the endless hours of listening to me explain my work because my home institution was so very far away.

–  –  –

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Context

Contending Theories

What My Study Offers

The Fourth Approach

Research Question and Project Significance

Overview of Key Concepts

Research Boundaries

Research Design

Chapter Overviews

CHAPTER 2: GLOBALIZATION AND MILITARY SPENDING—WHAT

SOCIOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONALISM OFFERS OUR UNDERSTANDING...........41 The Other Approaches First

Rational-based Approaches

Institutionalisms

Sociological Institutionalism

The Washington Consensus

The Washington Consensus and Commonsense

The Neo-Liberal Economic Agenda

The Key Global Actors

States

Transnational Corporations

International Financial Institutions

Sociological Institutionalism and the Washington Consensus

The National Security Exception in Action

Tensions and Social Constructs

CHAPTER 3: THE LITERATURE REVIEW

Militarization

Peace Dividend

Military Spending

What’s Missing?

The Washington Consensus and Militarization

CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

The Design

Methodological Approaches

Causality

Qualitative, Quantitative, and Synthesis of the Two

Fuzzy Sets

Calibration Methods

Hypotheses

Data and Measurements

The Outcome: Anomalous Post-Cold War Military Spending

Causal Conditions

Neo-Liberal Economic Agenda

Strong National Security Exception (sNSE)

Weak National Security Exception (wNSE)

International Financial Institutions (IFIs)

Contextual Conditions

Wealth

Regime Type

Conflict

Conclusion

CHAPTER 5: FSQCA AND THE PEACE DIVIDEND

The Main Components of fsQCA

Truth Tables

Consistency

Coverage

Parsimonious, Complex, and Intermediate Solutions

Procedures

Application

The Results

Necessary Conditions Revisited

Considering the Causal Combinations and the Outcomes

Closing Comments

CHAPTER 6: ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS

General Conclusions

Revisiting the Hypotheses

Final Remarks

APPENDIX A: CALIBRATION METHODS

APPENDIX B: PEACE DIVIDEND DATA CHALLENGES

APPENDIX C: THE NEO-LIBERAL ECONOMIC AGENDA

APPENDIX D: STRONG NATIONAL SECURITY EXCEPTION

APPENDIX E: THE WEAK NATIONAL SECURITY EXCEPTION

APPENDIX F: INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

APPENDIX G: WEALTH

APPENDIX H: CONFLICT

APPENDIX I: NECESSARY CONDITIONS

APPENDIX J: SOLUTION SETS AND RECIPES

WORKS CITED

–  –  –

Military spending briefly dipped in the early 1990s only to rebound by the end of the 20th century, yet policymakers and academics alike predicted a peace dividend if the cold war should end. What happened to this peace dividend? How do some countries actualize a peace dividend in a world that seems not to encourage one? Typically military spending is analyzed through lenses focusing on international politics, bureaucratic process, or domestic political economy. I argue that these three lenses have failed to account for some of the reasons military spending remains high in the post-cold war era. Utilizing sociological institutionalism and world models, I examine how the rules of the Washington consensus via the neo-liberal economic agenda and the national security exception promote high levels of military spending that the three main theories fail to recognize. This study particularly delves into the roles of states and transnational corporations in terms of competitiveness in the global political economy and privileges allotted to the military industry. My tests rely on fuzzy-set comparative qualitative analysis (fsQCA) as an innovative means for looking at necessary conditions as well as sufficient conjunctural causation through which countries can achieve a peace dividend in the post-cold war era.

–  –  –

War is just a racket... It is conducted for the benefit of the very few at the expense of the masses... There isn't a trick in the racketeering bag that the military gang is blind to. It has its 'finger men' to point out enemies, its 'muscle men' to destroy enemies, its 'brain men' to plan war preparations, and a 'Big Boss' Super-Nationalistic-Capitalism. (Major General Smedley Butler, 1933) It was widely believed that once the cold war ended the resources used toward militaries and security during the cold war would transfer to other needs. Now just a decade and a half after the end of the cold war much of these resources throughout the world continue to be allotted to the military.1 Traditionally, scholars see international politics, bureaucratic process, and the domestic political economy as the most compelling explanations for military spending. I argue that the identities and social constructs that comprise the global political economy mediate the impact of the external environment on military spending such that the traditional explanations only capture part of the picture. I suggest that military spending decisions are shaped by the identities and social constructs that impact how people view the world and their societies. These identities and social constructs influence the role militaries play in how we define states, transnational corporations, and international financial institutions, as well as the expectations we assign these actors in the global political economy.

While below I discuss regional and country variation, overall world military expenditures are reaching the 1987-88 cold war peak. Current figures show world levels close to this peak (SIPRI 2005: Recent Trends; see also WMEAT 2003). Since the late 1990s, military spending as a percent of gross domestic product has increased in highand low-income countries while decreasing in middle-income countries (SIPRI 2008b).

The current chapter sets the context for this study then outlines the contributions made by the three main approaches to understanding military spending: international politics especially in terms of threat; bureaucratic process; and the domestic political economy. I then suggest a fourth approach that focuses on the Washington consensus in terms of the neo-liberal economic agenda and the national security exception. I argue that the manner in which we conduct the global political economy under the Washington consensus via the neo-liberal economic agenda and by privileging the military through the national security exception explain what the other theories miss about high post-cold war military spending. What is it that those countries that do have peace dividends in this era have in common under the Washington consensus that encourages them to lower military spending even as the global trend is to increase this spending? While it is possible this fourth approach works independently, it more likely has elements that interact or overlap with the more traditional explanations. For these reasons, this study sets out to examine what elements of the global political economy might contribute to lower military spending, even with the dominance of the Washington consensus and its national security exception, and just how much and in what ways.

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 30 |


Similar works:

«Seven Pillars of Carrier‐Grade Security in the AT&T Global IP/MPLS Network INTRODUCTION AT&T’s legacy and expertise lies in the creation and maintenance of secure, reliable networks that are always on and available when you need them. This goal is as valid today for our Internet Protocol (IP) and MPLS (Multi‐Protocol Label Switching) networks as it was for traditional circuit switching network. And now that IP /MPLS networks are embedded in the critical processing of our business and...»

«Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency in cooperation with Faculty of Law, University of Split and University North 16th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – “The Legal Challenges of Modern World” Editors: Zeljka Primorac, Candida Bussoli and Nicholas Recker Book of Proceedings Split, 1-2 September 2016 Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency in cooperation with Faculty of Law, University of Split and University North Editors: Zeljka...»

«Sequestration: A Review of Estimates of Potential Job Losses Linda Levine Specialist in Labor Economics October 1, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R42763 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Sequestration: A Review of Estimates of Potential Job Losses Summary Policymakers and economists have expressed concern that spending cuts and tax increases (commonly referred to as the “fiscal cliff”) may push a slowly growing economy into...»

«Protecting Pro-Poor Health Services during Financial Crises Lessons from Experience1 April 2009 1 This paper was prepared by a team led by Pablo Gottret (Lead Economist, Health – HDNHE). The team included Ajay Tandon, Susan Sparkes, Vaibhav Gupta, Valerie Moran, and Peter Berman. Comments on early drafts were made by colleagues across the Bank whom we thank for their contributions. Table of Contents Executive Summary Background Objective of this paper A Simple Conceptual Framework How does...»

«Minority Governments and Party Politics: The Political and Institutional Background to the “Danish Miracle” Christoffer Green-Pedersen 01/1 Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung Paulstrasse 3 50676 Köln Germany Telephone 0221/2767 -0 Fax 0221/2767-555 MPIfG Discussion Paper 01/1 E-Mail info@mpi-fg-koeln.mpg.de ISSN 0944–2073 Home Page http://www.mpi-fg-koeln.mpg.de March 2001 Green-Pedersen: Political and Institutional Background to the “Danish Miracle” 2 Abstract The...»

«University of Connecticut DigitalCommons@UConn Honors Scholar Theses Honors Scholar Program Spring 5-1-2008 France, Italy, and Spain: Culturally Similar Nations, Yet Drastically Different In Their Roles as European Union Nations Laura Hettinger University of Connecticut Storrs, laura.hettinger@huskymail.uconn.edu Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/srhonors_theses Part of the Business Administration, Management, and Operations Commons Recommended Citation...»

«This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1998, volume 13 Volume Author/Editor: Ben S. Bernanke and Julio Rotemberg, editors Volume Publisher: MIT Press Volume ISBN: 0-262-52271-3 Volume URL: http://www.nber.org/books/bern99-1 Publication Date: January 1999 Chapter Title: Investment: Fundamentals and Finance Chapter Author: Simon Gilchrist, Charles Himmelberg Chapter URL:...»

«People Matter: A hermeneutic exploration of reflective practice and facilities management Melanie Bull A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Sheffield Hallam University for the degree of Doctor of Business Administration September 2014 Abstract This is a hermeneutic study exploring the use of reflective practice in the context of facilities management. This study engaged facilities management practitioners who had all completed a part time undergraduate certificate in...»

«CURRICULUM VITAE Prof. Sobhasri Tadi GF-1, Raj Kamal Apartments, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India–530 003. Ph: 0891-2784527, 919848097091 E-mail : tadisobha@yahoo.co.in CAREER OBJECTIVE Seeking dynamic and progressive working environment where I can contribute my best of knowledge and expertise to the growth of my organization and learn new cutting edge technologies in professional environments. ACADAMIC PROFILE: Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D in Social work) “The Role...»

«European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No.8, pp 132-143, November 2013. P.P. 132 143 URL: http://www.ejbss.com/recent.aspx ISSN: 2235 -767X ETHICS IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SECTOR: THE HR PRACTITIONERS’ PERSPECTIVES FRANCIS C. ANYIM Ph.D NDUBUISI M. UFODIAMA FCIPM., FNIM., FABS, FCAI Department of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management, Department of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management, Faculty of Business Administration Faculty of Business Administration...»

«6. POWER RELATIONSHIPS The theme of power is perennial to literature of all times and while power is glorified by some its evil potential is shown by others. Most Marlowe's plays are concerned with power, whether power gained through knowledge, money or the crown, evil forces are always at play. Shakespeare's plays, too, link power with evil, evil craving for power or power productive of evil. Milton questions the un­ limited power of God and Satan's evil. In Iris Murdoch's novels her handling...»

«    Resource Dependence Theory: Past and Future•  Gerald F. Davis Ross School of Business University of Michigan 701 Tappan St. Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1234 (734) 647-4737 gfdavis@umich.edu J. Adam Cobb Ross School of Business University of Michigan 701 Tappan St. Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1234 adamcobb@umich.edu To appear in Research in the Sociology of Organizations April 1, 2009 • We appreciate the helpful comments of Frank Dobbin, Amy Hillman, Jeff Pfeffer, and Flannery Stevens. Resource...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.