«Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Ukrainian Center of Social Reforms United Nations ...»
Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Ukrainian Center of Social Reforms
United Nations Population Fund
YOUTH AND YOUTH POLICY
SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC
УДК 329.78: [316+314] (477)
М 75 Youth and Youth Policy in Ukraine: social and demographic aspects. – К.: Ptoukha
Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the NAS of Ukraine, 2010. – 238 с.
The monograph covers a range of issues related to the system of values, lifestyles, demographic behaviour, social and economic structure and situation of youth in Ukraine. The publication analyses value orientations of young people in different spheres of life. It contains results of the research into the dynamics of the number and structure of youth, gender relations and marital situation in youth and childbearing orientations of Ukrainian young people. Determinants of the current health status of Ukrainian youth are studied comprehensively with a focus on behavioural risk factors.
Youth reproductive health issues and the problem of mortality in young age groups are given special attention.
The monograph examines major social and economic characteristics of youth:
educational level, speciﬁc features of youth economic activity, occupational structure of youth etc. The research analyses educational and labour orientations of young people, including attitudes towards labour migrations. The monograph also looks into the peculiarities of internal and international migration of Ukrainian youth.
This publication contains results of study and generalization of the national youth policy experience as far as solutions to social and demographic problems are concerned. The monograph offers a number of recommendations on improvement and development of the youth policy in our country.
This scientiﬁc publication is addressed to demographers, economists, sociologists and experts in state administration and social policy.
Dieieva N. M. (Doctor of Economics, Professor, Chief Research Associate of the Social Infrastructure Department of Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) Makarova О. V. (Doctor of Economics, Senior Research Associate, Deputy Director of Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) Approved for publication by the Academic Council of Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Proceedings № 8 of September 1, 2010) This monograph is prepared and published under the ﬁnancial and technical support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The monograph does not representthe ofﬁcial position of the UNFPA.
ISBN CONTENTS Introduction
Chapter І. Youth in Ukraine today and tomorrow: demographic portrait
1.1. Population dynamics and demographic characteristics of youth... 8
1.2. Prospected changes in the number, age and sex structure of youth contingent in Ukraine
Chapter ІІ. Family and marriage in the life of Ukrainian youth........
2.1. Youth values and attitudes towards family and marriage............... 29
2.2. Family and marital status of today’s youth. Forms of marital relations
2.3. Fertility and childbearing preferences of youth in Ukraine........... 54
2.4. Factors determining a decision to have a child
Chapter ІІІ. Youth health determinants. Health status of the younger generation
3.1. Youth health determinants
3.2. Major health risks at young age
3.2.1. Alcohol and drug use
3.2.2. Smoking and its consequences
3.2.3. Hypodynamia, excess weight and obesity
3.3. Reproductive health and its determinants
3.4. Mortality at young age
Chapter IV. Social and economic characteristics of youth and speciﬁc features of its economic behaviour
4.1. Educational level and educational and occupational orientations of youth
4.2. Youth economic activity and current situation in the labour 155 market
Chapter V. Speciﬁc features of youth migrations in Ukraine.............. 170
5.1. Migration activity of Ukrainian youth
5.2. Youth migration attitudes
Chapter VI. Youth policy in Ukraine: current situation and directions of improvement
6.1. Problems of formation and implementation of youth policy in Ukraine
6.2. Ways of further improvement of youth policy in Ukraine.............. 212 Conclusions
Social and economic and spiritual renaissance of Ukraine will not be possible without the efforts and attention being centered on problems of youth as the future of our country and the guarantor of social and economic progress, since it is an absolute truth that further development of the existing society to the highest possible extent depends on whether appropriate starting conditions are ensured for life of young generations.
Although this idea is well-realized, the majority of countries entered the new millennium with a significant burden of unsolved youth problems, a range of which, for example, youth inequality, unemployment and marginalization of youth, spread of illegal social practices and asocial manifestations in the youth environment, youth health problems and some marriage and family problems etc. currently demonstrate a trend towards aggravation.
In the situation of deep economic and demographic crisis and the crisis of culture and ideology observed in the post-Soviet countries, including Ukraine, today youth problems in different spheres of life develop some specific features and are characterized by hard and long-term consequences and, therefore, require thorough analysis and regulation as well as development of a realistic, well-balanced and weighted policy in respect of young generations.
The traditions of studying youth problems and youth policy are rather well-established and date as far back as the times of Pythagore and Hippocrates who worked on determining the time framework of the youth age. Again, as long ago as in the Ancient Greece it was acknowledged that the state (polis) should take an active part in socialization of youth - sharing life experience and world outlook with young people.
This publication submitted for the attention of our readers follows the national tradition of research into social and demographic aspects of formation, development and realization of youth potential in the interdisciplinary context which was established and further developed in our country by national demographers, economists and sociologists Yu. KorchakChepurkovskiy, A.Roslavskiy-Petrovskiy, B.Urlanis, S.Pirozhkov, I.Lukinov, O.Balakirieva, V.Pich and others.
The authors of this survey aimed at making an in-depth analysis of the current situation as well as social and demographic problems of Ukrainian youth and at developing certain directions of improvement of the state social and demographic youth policy on the basis of this analysis. In this monograph, youth is researched as a social and demographic population group marked out on the basis of age characteristics and social status peculiarities.
Within the framework of the survey, trends in the most recent changes of the social and demographic portrait of Ukrainian youth and the specific nature of demographic processes (marriage and family processes, fertility, changes in the general and reproductive health status, mortality) in the youth environment as well as youth migrations were analyzed; an attempt was made to identify youth position in the social and economic structure of society and to forecast the number and structure of youth contingents in Ukraine in the long-term.
In order to gain an insight into the genesis of social and demographic problems of young people and to formulate the hypotheses concerning respective changes, along with using statistical data on natural and migration movement of the population and the sample surveys carried out by the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, the survey widely used the results of special representative sample social and demographic youth survey “Youth of Ukraine: Lifestyles and Values”. The survey was carried out by the team of sociology specialists of the Social Monitoring Center headed by O. Balakirieva, Ph.D. in Economics (interview of 1800 respondents aged 15–34 was held in April 2010 in all regions of Ukraine). Materials of the survey provided the basis for examining a range of behaviour aspects of young people’s life, for getting an idea of values and life plans of young people in different areas (matrimonial, childbearing, educational and occupational, social and labour spheres), peculiarities of lifestyles, in particular, vital behaviour of young people, familial relations and gender roles in modern young families, for analyzing migration attitudes and for identifying the opinion of youth on government youth policy and the needs of young people in this respect.
Identified youth problems of social and demographic nature in Ukraine and forecasts of their further development formed the basis for recommendations on the betterment of youth situation in Ukraine, optimization of their life orientations and improvement of quality characteristics.
This publication is the result of the research work carried out by the team of authors headed by Academician of the National Academy of Sciences Е. Libanova and consisting of: Ph.D. in Economics S. Aksyonova (Chapter V, cl.2.3, 2.4), Ph.D. in Political Sciences V. Golovenko (cl.6.1), Yu.
Klymenko (Chapter IV), B. Krimer (cl.2.4, 6.2), Doctor of Economics І. Kurylo (Introduction, Chapter IV, cl.1,1, Conclusions), Ph.D. in Economics N. Levchuk (cl.3.2.2), Academician Е. Libanova (Chapter VI, Conclusions), Ph.D. in Economics S. Nychyporenko (cl.6.2), Ph.D. in Economics О. Paliy (cl.3.1, 3.2.3), Doctor in State Administration Sciences N. Ryngach (cl.3.1, 3.3, 3.4), S.Sydyak (cl.3.2.1), Ph.D. in Economics L. Slyusar (cl.2.1, 2.2), Ph.D. in Economics P. Shevchuk (cl. 1.2).
The research, preparation of the monograph for publication and its publication have been implemented within the framework of the project of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) “Research on Demographic Factors of Social Transformations” which is a part of the technical cooperation program between UNFPA and the Government of Ukraine for the period 2006-2011.
YOUTH IN UKRAINE TODAY AND
1.1. Population dynamics and demographic characteristics of youth In Ukraine, youth within the currently defined age range (the Ukrainian legislation defines youth as being in the age range 15–34) accounts for a considerable proportion of the total population of the country. In demographic terms of family formation, childbearing and population reproduction in general, recent dynamics of youth in Ukraine can not be described as a favorable one. At the background of total population declining over the years of the country’s independence, during the 1991–2000 decline in the contingent of persons aged 15–35 was also observed, but in the first half of the current decade it grew, therefore, in 2005 as against 2000 its number grew by 2.2%. However, over the last five years youth contingents in Ukraine significantly decreased again (almost by 4.0%), mostly due to the youngest age groups (age 15–19) born at the times of socio-economic transformations (Fig. 1.1).
As a result, at the beginning of the XXI century (2010 as compared with 2000) the youth aged 15–34 in our country dropped by 1.8%. However, at the same time, the rate of reduction of the youth did not exceed the rate of other age contingents declining and, consequently, the proportion of the youth in total population grew from 28.3% to 29.8%.
Recent dynamics of young population size by type of settlement also clearly reflects the impact of demographic waves and, particularly, specific features of inter-settlement migration characterized by mass outflow of young people from rural area (Fig. 1.2).
Number of population by particular age groups in Ukraine in 2000–2010 (at the beginning of the year) Source: data of the State Statistics Committee Fig. 1.2.
The number of youth people aged 15–34 and its proportion in population of Ukraine by type of settlement in 2000–2010 Source: calculations according of the State Statistics Committee data Presently, the proportion of young urban residents in total youth contingents is 71%, with the percentage of total urban population in Ukraine slightly exceeding 68%. Over the first seven years of the decade under study, the “contribution” of urban residents in the total number of Ukrainian youth grew slowly (with total increase of almost 0.6 percentage points), with an insignificant decline over the recent years (by 0.3 percentage points).
The gender balance of population in respective age groups is an essential condition for implementation by youth of certain demographic functions (family formation, childbearing and upbringing etc.). Over the recent decades the situation with the gender balance of population in Ukraine, particularly the young, changed markedly: a certain “shortage” of young males observed in Ukraine several decades ago was replaced by some “excess” of young males that is more natural for this age group (Fig. 1.3).
Number of young people aged 15–34 by gender in Ukraine, 2000–2010 Source: calculations according of the State Statistics Committee data
In general, the dynamics of the recent decade shows that the numerical advantage of males in younger contingents grew owing to the same advantage in three younger age groups of the youth population (aged under 15–19, 20–24 and 25–29). At the same time, certain differences can be seen in the dynamics of the gender parity in cities and villages by different age groups of youth.
Presently, the youth contingent in Ukraine is demographically
heterogeneous as it consists of population groups within wide age range: