«The Need for Integration in the Internet of Things 4 IoT in Industrial Automation 6 Increased Value: Java and Industrial Automation 9 Java Reference ...»
Java and the Internet of Things:
Automating the Industrial Economy
ORACLE WHITE PAPER | FEBRUARY 2015
Java and the Internet of Things: Automating the Industrial Economy 3
The Need for Integration in the Internet of Things 4
IoT in Industrial Automation 6
Increased Value: Java and Industrial Automation 9
Java Reference Architecture for Industrial Automation 14 Getting Started with Oracle 19
2 | JAVA AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS: AUTOMATING THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYJava and the Internet of Things: Automating the Industrial Economy Industrial automation involves the integration of physical machinery and processes with sensors, computers, and software. The result is an intelligent manufacturing infrastructure for increased safety and efficiency, and lowered costs. However, industrial automation comes with its own set of challenges. These include the need to connect multiple proprietary control systems, maintain end-to- end system uptime, reduce energy consumption and total costs, adhere to regulatory requirements, and increase safety and security at every phase.
At its core, industrial automation aims to bring together the advances of two transformative revolutions:
the machines, facilities, fleets and networks that arose from the Industrial Revolution, and the powerful advances in computing, information and communication systems established via the Internet Revolution. The intersection of these two diverse and disparate sets of technologies often results in a mixture of individual solutions. Businesses need their distributed manufacturing and business processes and control systems to behave like a single, flexible computing platform combined securely with a modern development platform to build, deploy and update applications. Oracle Java Embedded delivers this.
3 | JAVA AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS: AUTOMATING THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYThe Need for Integration in the Internet of Things The next major transformation in industrial automation is underway. Intelligent devices, ubiquitous Internet connectivity and growing IT infrastructure are combining to uncover and drive new business opportunities. As manufacturers increasingly automate their processes and machines, they become an important and growing segment of the Internet of Things (IoT). This term is used to define a system in which the Internet is connected to the real world via ubiquitous sensors and devices. The vision of IoT is to integrate diverse sets of data from physical sensors and the rest of IT to enable analytics that can anticipate events, issues and other needs. As a result, the system as a whole can have a view of what’s taking place at any location and point in time. This leads to a set of connected systems that could greatly reduce waste, lower costs, and eliminate loss for just about any human- machine or machine-machine activity.
Deploying a smarter manufacturing infrastructure based on IoT methods allows businesses to build and maintain a wealth of knowledge across manufacturing, control and business processes. For example, immediate access to plant-wide information provides factory managers with enhanced environmental condition monitoring capabilities. At the same time, readily available asset information can optimize factory production performance and process control to help managers gain a competitive edge in market production. All the while, real-time data—used as part of a feedback loop—can be used to improve quality, drive out inefficiencies, and ensure human safety at all levels.
A timeline of innovations in industrial processes (Figure 1) shows an increase in productivity and quality with each milestone. We’re now moving through Industry 4.0, the automated industrial economy, where IoT is helping to increase efficiencies through deep insight, reduce system failures with predicative analytics, drive new business through discovery, and cut costs by uncovering waste.
Figure 1. Industry 4.0 is the next leap in industrial automation driven by IoT.
At the intersection of today’s industrial automation requirements and the rapidly emerging IoT technology wave, no other platform today is better positioned to enable an end-to-end automated industrial economy strategy than Oracle Java Embedded. Given its ability to run on a wide range of devices, from mobile and embedded systems with limited CPU and memory, to servers with immense power and capacity, Java is meant to power a world of compute resources with ubiquitous connectivity. Java-powered devices in this ecosystem will communicate with each other
4 | JAVA AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS: AUTOMATING THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYand with people via sensors and controllers, gathering data and ultimately being able to understand and control events in real time.
The number of cellular machine-to-machine (M2M) connections in industrial automation applications is predicted to grow at a compound annual rate of 23.2 percent—from 2.5 million connections at the end of 2013 to 7.1 million connections by 2018 (“Industrial Automation and Wireless M2M,” M2M Research Series 2013, Berg Insight).
Automating the Industrial Economy The automation of industrial processes involves industrial control systems, which usually include supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, or other distributed control systems (DCS). They communicate over secure channels to computers controlling remote equipment that can be distributed geographically.
The Industrial Controls and Factory Automation market is projected to reach $301.9 billion by 2020 (Markets and Markets, May 2014).
A typical SCADA system integrates a sensor tier to acquire data from physical machines and other components; a control tier with industrial controllers to interact with the machinery and sensors; and a supervisor tier with humanmachine interface (HMI) systems to monitor and control the entire automated process.
According to research by Berg Insight, both the number of devices and the amount of data collected is increasing end-to-end in industrial automation systems (Figure 2). This is driving the need for additional control and management systems for these devices, as well as new analytics to find hidden value in the data collected.
Figure 2. The number of IoT devices and the amount of data collected is increasing in industrial automation solutions (“Industrial Automation and Wireless M2M,” M2M Research Series 2013, Berg Insight).
Ten years ago there was a marked difference in the cost of technologies used in industrial controllers. But with the commoditization of processors, memory, embedded software, and communications, the cost differential has become insignificant for new offerings from all vendors. Still, the traditional processes used within many manufacturing organizations to enable bespoke, customized applications don’t scale efficiently. You need new strategies and technologies, such as Java, to minimize time and effort spent on non-differentiating tasks, and to restore innovation.
To make a difference, a newer, deeper level of data acquisition and associated analytics is needed. The answer lies with the Internet of Things.
5 | JAVA AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS: AUTOMATING THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYIoT in Industrial Automation Fully leveraging low-cost, low-energy sensors and devices that make up the Internet of Things can help unlock savings in terms of power consumption and total system cost. IoT enables sensors and end devices to directly communicate with enterprise infrastructure to provide in-context data awareness around system functionality.
According to the 2014 VDC Research paper, “Brewing Embedded Market Success with Java,” IoT technology is helping manufacturers sell more products, and bundle additional services with each sale thanks to enhanced business analytics (Figure 3). The end-to-end control and insight delivered by IoT to all levels of industrial processes can greatly expand the industrial economy.
Figure 3. How is IoT impacting manufacturers' business model?
Research indicates that the use of IoT and M2M technology in industrial automation systems will increase by 25 percent over the next three years (“Brewing Embedded Market Success with Java,” VDC Research, 2014).
Sensors and Devices Uncover Hidden Value A robust IoT platform allows you to seamlessly integrate every automation system and component via standard communication protocols, linking controllers and actuators, machinery, enterprise systems, automated systems, and even video and audio feeds. The goal is to combine sensors and devices (and their data) with analytics to discover previously untapped operational efficiencies and achieve greater optimization.
IoT is driving a new generation of controllers and sensors with increased connectivity and embedded intelligence to further increase automation, optimization and uptime. Wireless IoT protocols deliver expanded connectivity with easier integration across manufacturing sites.
6 | JAVA AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS: AUTOMATING THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYIoT: Seeing Through the Fog and Cloud The distributed nature of industrial automation processes also works well with the cloud. Industry leaders are working quickly to build out specialized cloud infrastructure to connect automation systems and handle your big data needs. Leveraging ready-made cloud systems saves you system integration time and costs, allowing you to focus on innovative analytics, deep process optimizations, and greater end-to-end value.
By combining device data with analytics, you’ll uncover hidden value in your automation data, such as the ability to predict the onset of equipment failure and initiate repairs before they occur, and gain greater system insight.
Additionally, easier and cheaper integration of devices and systems equates to increased innovation and the creation of end-to-end process feedback loops. All of this enables continuous refinement in your processes and greater system intelligence, giving you a competitive edge.
Companies have struggled over the integration of their manufacturing and business systems. IoT and the cloud can turn your ERP, material requirements planning, manufacturing resource planning, and manufacturing execution system into one integrated suite encompassing business functions, supply chain management, asset management, production scheduling, and end-to-end optimization (“Internet of Things: Industrial automation industry exploring and implementing IoT,” by Bill Lydon, ISA, 2014).
Beyond the potential benefits of industrial automation, there are challenges and concerns that need to be considered. Let’s explore these now and how, once again, technology can come to the rescue.
The Value of Oracle in the Industrial Economy Quicker business decisions based on real-time data gathering enable you to more effectively adapt to changes in markets and competition, and to deliver greater value to your end customers. In fact, with big data analytics, companies can often predict market changes and customer needs before they occur. To accomplish this, you need to have the right amount of analytics and intelligence at every point in your system, from servers to smart devices, and the gateway computers that interconnect.
Oracle technology is used throughout many automated systems deployed at leading manufacturing and facilities companies globally. Oracle products are helping companies gain deeper insight into their processes, with fast data and enhanced analytics to uncover greater value, quicker than before. For instance, technology and services from
Oracle are repeatedly chosen to help in the following areas (Figure 4):
» Operations: increase efficiency and effectiveness through process optimization.
» Resource tracking: the ability to track assets and resources across an entire enterprise. This includes physical devices and machines, as well as employees and other human resources.
» Process feedback loops: the implementation of analytics and business intelligence to gather real-time operations data, analyze the data to predict needs, failures, and future value, and optimize and measure processes based on this data.
» Manufacturing flexibility: the ability to reconfigure, enhance, and modify manufacturing lines, machines, and processes systematically and without human intervention through advanced logic and control.
7 | JAVA AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS: AUTOMATING THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYFigure 4. Oracle’s Internet of Things platform delivers enhanced data analytics for greater automation value.
The Challenges of IoT in Industrial Automation Increased automation and non-human intervention represents enormous potential for increased efficiency and value throughout the entire industrial domain. The Internet of Things adds to this by vastly increasing the potential to innovate. But with all of this come potential challenges and concerns.
» Safety and security: The first challenge is the safety of workers and security of systems involved in production, control, and monitoring processes. This is the central challenge of combining control systems with communication or social systems, yet maximum value demands an integrated experience.
» Implementation portability and cost: Manufactures are challenged with the additional potential cost of increased automation. Many of the systems involve disparate and diverse legacy applications, implemented over time, which need to be integrated with newer technology. Often proprietary, they require specialized tools and implementation skills, while others require varying hardware and OS support.
» System availability and uptime: When entire assembly lines, factory conveyor systems, plant operations, or city-municipal services are at stake, the uptime of each individual component is critical. From sensors and control systems to servers, every part of the automated system must work flawlessly and communicate reliably to ensure the highest level of productivity.
» Energy consumption: Given the breadth of IT deployment in a typical industrial automation solution, energy usage can fluctuate and otherwise become hard to predict or plan and budget for. The ability to continually reduce energy consumption can be a competitive advantage.