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«Florida International University Aquatic Ecology Lab April 2007 Prepared by Tish Robertson, Brooke Sargeant, and Raúl Urgellés Table of Contents ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Fish Identification Guide

For Throw trap Samples

Florida International University

Aquatic Ecology Lab

April 2007

Prepared by

Tish Robertson, Brooke Sargeant, and Raúl Urgellés

Table of Contents

Basic fish morphology diagrams………………………………………..3

Fish species by family…………………………………………………...4-31

Gar…..………………………………………………………….... 4

Bowfin………….………………………………..………………...4 Tarpon…...……………………………………………………….. 5 American Eel…………………..………………………………….5 Bay Anchovy…..……..…………………………………………...6 Pickerels...………………………………………………………...6-7 Shiners and Minnows…………………………...……………….7-9 Bullhead Catfishes……..………………………………………...9-10 Madtom Catfish…………………………………………………..10 Airbreathing Catfish …………………………………………….11 Brown Hoplo…...………………………………………………….11 Orinoco Sailfin Catfish……………………………..……………12 Pirate Perch…….………………………………………………...12 Topminnows ……………….……………………….……………13-16 Livebearers……………….……………………………….…….. 17-18 Pupfishes…………………………………………………………19-20 Silversides..………………………………………………..……..20-21 Snook……………………………………………………………...21 Sunfishes and Basses……………….……………………....….22-25 Swamp Darter…………………………………………………….26 Mojarra……...…………………………………………………….26 Everglades pygmy sunfish……………………………………...27 Cichlids………………………….….………………………….....28-30 American Soles…………………………………………………..31 Key to juvenile sunfish..………………………………………………...32 Key to cichlids………....………………………………………………...33-38 Note for Reader/References…………………………………………...39 2 Basic Fish Morphology Diagrams Figures from Page and Burr (1991).

3 FAMILY: Lepisosteidae (gars)

SPECIES:

Lepisosteus platyrhincus

COMMON NAME:

Florida gar ENP CODE: 17

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

LEPPLA

DESCRIPTION:

-Long, thin body

-Long snout, prominent teeth

-Dorsal and anal fins far back on body

-Non-overlapping, diamond-shaped ganoid scales

-Rounded caudal fin

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Chain and Redfin Pickerels

-Pike killifish NOTE: Very low frequency in throw trap

FAMILY: Amiidae (bowfin)

SPECIES:

Amia calva

COMMON NAME:

bowfin ENP CODE: 55

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

AMICAL

DESCRIPTION: Photo from:

-Long, cylindrical body USFWS, http://images.fws.gov/

-Long dorsal fin extends more than half length of back

-Large mouth extending past eye, many teeth

-Tubular nostrils

-Large, bony gular plate

-Black spot near base of upper caudal fin base in young

SIMILAR SPECIES:

NOTE: Rare in throw traps

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Notemigonus crysoleucas

COMMON NAME:

Golden shiner ENP CODE: 9

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

NOTCRY

DESCRIPTION:

-Strongly decurved lateral line

-Small, upturned mouth

-Herringbone lines on young Photo from:

-Falcate anal fin http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/images/ NOTE: Very low frequency in throw traps Shinergolden400A.jpg

SPECIES:

Notropis maculatus 1

COMMON NAME:

Taillight shiner 2 ENP CODE: 32 GENUS-SPECIES

CODE:

NOTMAC

DESCRIPTION:

-Thick black line down body—slim and even (1)

-Emarginate tail

-Beak-like mouth

-Large black blotch on caudal fin base (2)

-Black-edged scales lined with black on both sides of the black line

-Black blotch on leading edge of dorsal fin

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Taillight shiner (has smaller wedge on caudal fin, no black leading edge of dorsal fin, black line on side is thick and thickens behind eye)

-Lake chubsucker (has sub-terminal mouth)

-Bluefin killifish (has rounded tail) NOTE: Very low frequency in throw traps; caught in Pal Mar

8FAMILY: Cyprinidae (minnows)

SPECIES:

Notropis petersoni 2 1

COMMON NAME:

Coastal shiner ENP CODE: 30





GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

NOTPET

DESCRIPTION:

-Thick black line down body that thickens behind eye (1)

-Emarginate tail

-Beak-like mouth

-Small black wedge on caudal fin base (2)

-Black-edged scales lined with black only above black line

-Anal rays lined with black

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Taillight shiner (has larger spot on caudal fin, black leading edge of dorsal fin, and black line on side is thin and even)

-Lake chubsucker (chubsucker has sub-terminal mouth)

-Bluefin killifish (has rounded tail) NOTE: Very low frequency in throw traps; often caught in Pal Mar FAMILY: Ictaluridae (North American freshwater catfish)

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Clarias batrachus

COMMON NAME:

Walking catfish ENP CODE: 60

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

CLABAT DESCRIPTION: 1

-Long dorsal fin and anal fin

-Rounded caudal fin

-4 pairs of barbels (1)

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Yellow and Brown Bullheads

-Brown hoplo

-Channel catfish

-Orinoco sailfin catfish NOTE: Rare in throw traps

FAMILY: Callichthyidae (Callichthyid armored catfishes)(non-indigenous)

SPECIES:

Hoplosternum littorale

COMMON NAME:

2 Brown hoplo ENP CODE: 90

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

HOPLIT

DESCRIPTION:

-Hard, armor-like exterior

-4 pairs of barbels (1)

-Has adipose fin (between dorsal and caudal fins) with 1 spine at front (2)

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Yellow and Brown Bullheads

-Tadpole Madtom

-Channel catfish

-Orinoco sailfin catfish

-Walking catfish NOTE: Low frequency in throw traps FAMILY: Loricariidae (South American armored catfishes) (non-indigenous)

–  –  –

FAMILY: Aphredoderidae (Pirate perch)

SPECIES:

Aphredoderus sayanus

COMMON NAME:

Pirate perch 2 ENP CODE: 87

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

APHSAY

DESCRIPTION:

-Large head, mouth

-Anus and urogenital openings between gill membranes in adult, in 1 front of anal fin in juveniles

-Dark suborbital bar (1)

-Dark bar on caudal fin base (2)

-Square, barely notched caudal fin

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Flagfish

-Everglades pygmy sunfish

NOTE:

Low frequency in throw traps, found throughout 12 FAMILY: Fundulidae (topminnows)

SPECIES:

Adinia xenica

COMMON NAME:

Diamond killifish ENP CODE: 15

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

ADIXEN

DESCRIPTION:

-Pointed head, upper profileconcave

-Banded

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Mosquitofish NOTE: Very low frequency in throw traps; found in Taylor Slough; often in brackish water

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Fundulus seminolis 1

COMMON NAME:

Seminole killifish ENP CODE: 34

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

FUNSEM

DESCRIPTION:

-Dorsal fin origin in front of 1 anal fin origin (1)

-15-20 faint bars on females and juveniles

-Adults often have rows of spots on body

-Longest Fundulus species in freshwater

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Golden topminnow (compare position of dorsal and anal fins)

-Marsh killifish (has fewer, darker bars, compare position of dorsal and anal fins) NOTE: Very low frequency in throw traps; found all over, but especially Pal Mar

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Lucania parva

COMMON NAME:

Rainwater killifish ENP CODE: 58

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

LUCPAR

DESCRIPTION:

-Large dark-edged scales on back and side

-Large males can have black spot at front of dorsal fin

-Dorsal fin origin in front of anal fin origin

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Bluefin killifish (has dark black stripe down side)

-Pygmy killifish (has large black spot on caudal peduncle on midside or dark bars on side)

-Eastern mosquitofish (has spots on unpaired fins) NOTE: Very low frequency in throw traps; found in southern ENP, in brackish water FAMILY: Poecilidae (livebearers) (non-indigenous)

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Poecilia latipinna

COMMON NAME:

Sailfin molly ENP CODE: 2

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

POELAT SEX: sexable at 18 mm

-Males have a Male gonopodium (1) DESCRIPTION: 1

-Top of head flattened

-Mouth strongly upturned

-No lateral line

-About 5 rows of dark spots Female

-Anal fin rays connected

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Mosquitofish (especially when small)

-Pirate perch (especially when small)

-Flagfish

18FAMILY: Cyprinodontidae(pupfishes)

SPECIES:

Cyprinodon variegatus

COMMON NAME:

Sheepshead minnow ENP CODE: 3

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

CYPVAR

DESCRIPTION:

-Deep bodied

-5-8 triangular shaped dark bars on side

-Silver color on preopercle

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Flagfish (has large black spot on side and no silver color on preopercle)

-Goldspotted killifish

SPECIES:

Floridichthys carpio

COMMON NAME:

Goldspotted killifish ENP CODE: 59

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

FLOCAR

DESCRIPTION:

-Upper profile convex

-Bands on side irregular and conPhoto from:

fined to lower part http://www.aka.org/sks/tonyvisit.htm

SIMILAR SPECIES:

Sheepshead minnow NOTE: Rare in throw traps; found in brackish water

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Menidia beryllina

COMMON NAME:

Inland silverside ENP CODE: 12

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

MENBER

DESCRIPTION:

-Long, beak-like snout

-Black horizontal line down body

-Two dorsal fins

-1st dorsal fin starts before start of anal fin (1)

-Long, sickle-shaped anal fin

-Pectoral fins stick out

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Brook silverside (compare position of 1st dorsal fin) NOTE: Rare in throw traps FAMILY: Centropomidae (snook)

–  –  –

SPECIES: Lepomis spp.

COMMON NAME: Sunfishes ENP CODE: 19

GENUS-SPECIES CODE: LEPSPP

DESCRIPTION:

-Code used when fish is too small to identify to species level

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Bluespotted sunfish (bluespotted is distinguished by dark suborbital bar)

-Tilapia also have black opercular spot, but always have a spot on the soft dorsal when small.

–  –  –

1

SPECIES:

Lepomis microlophus

COMMON NAME:

Redear sunfish ENP CODE: 40

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

LEPMIC

DESCRIPTION:

-Black spot with red or light margin on opercular flap (1)

-Emarginate tail

-Pectoral fin long & pointed

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-All sunfishes of genus Lepomis and bluespotted sunfish (redear is distinguished by red spot on ear flap)

-Tilapia also have black opercular spot. but always have a spot on the soft dorsal when small.

-Bluegill sunfish (has dorsal spot and longer gill rakSPECIES:

Micropterus salmoides

COMMON NAME:

Largemouth bass ENP CODE: 20

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

MICSAL

DESCRIPTION:

-Large mouth reaching past eye

-Emarginate caudal fin

-Thick, black, splotchy line along body

-Two dorsal fins (1st small)

SIMILAR SPECIES:

-Bluefin killifish

-Lake chubsucker

-Coastal and Taillight shiners NOTE: Low frequency in throw traps; found throughout (especially in Lake Okeechobee)

–  –  –

SPECIES:

Elassoma evergladei Male

COMMON NAME:

Everglades pygmy sunfish ENP CODE: 46

GENUS-SPECIES CODE:

ELAEVE

DESCRIPTION:



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