WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

«1 Table of Contents 1. Acknowledgements..3 2. Acronyms and abbreviations..3 3. Introduction...4 4. Unanimous Findings from the REA...4 5. Rapid ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

A Rapid Ecological Assessment of the Coral, Fish and Seagrasses of Pohnpei, Ahnd

and Pakin, Federated States of Micronesia – Findings and Recommendations.

September 2006

Prepared by the Conservation Society of Pohnpei

1

Table of Contents

1. Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………….....3

2. Acronyms and abbreviations….…..……………………………………………….3

3. Introduction………………... ……………………………………………………..4

4. Unanimous Findings from the REA………….………...………………………....4

5. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Reef Building Corals …………………………..5

5.1 Executive summary……………………………………………………….5

5.2 Priority Recommendations for Protecting the Coral Biodiversity of Pohnpei, Ahnd and Pakin…………………………………………………9

6. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Reef Fishes…………………………………….13

6.1 Executive Summary…………………………………………………….13

6.2 Priority Recommendations for Protecting the Fish Biodiversity of Pohnpei, Ahnd and Pakin……………………………………………………16

7. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Seagrasses…………………………………….. 17

7.1 Executive Summary…………………………………………………….. 17

7.2 Priority Recommendatios for Protecting the Seagrasses Biodiversity of Pohnpei and Ahnd atolls………………………………………………….21

8. References………………………………………………………………………...22 2

1. Acknowledgements This project was made possible with generous funding from the United States Department of the Interior- Office of Insular Affairs and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. Contents of this document are primarily excerpted from the three final reports submitted by the scientists who conducted the surveys: Emre Turak, Lyndon DeVantier, Gerry Allen, Len McKenzie and Michael Rasheed. These individuals worked tirelessly to produce high quality and useful reports. The staff of the Conservation Society of Pohnpei would also like to thank the following individuals for their continuous assistance and support during this project: Alison Green, Bill Raynor and Trina Leberer – The Nature Conservancy; Louise Goggin – CRC Reef Research Center; Donald David;

Scott Malakai and David Matthias – Pohnpei Department of Marine Development; and John Gavitt – WildAid.

2. Acronyms and abbreviations ABS – Area of Biodiversity Significance CRC – CRC Reef Research Center Ltd.

CSP – Conservation Society ofPohnpei COT – Crown of Thorns Starfish DEA – Pohnpei State Department of Economic Affairs DNLR – Pohnpei State Department of Land and Natural Resources DOI-OIA – United States Department of the Interior- Office of Insular Affairs MPA – Marine Protected Area REA – Rapid Ecological Assessment TNC – The Nature Conservancy WFR – Watershed Forest Reserve

3. Introduction

During 2005, the Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP), in conjunction with Pohnpei State partners, Department of Lands and Natural Resources (DNLR) and Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) undertook a Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) of Pohnpei island, and Ahnd and Pakin atolls in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The REA was undertaken with financial assistance from the United States Department of the Interior – Office of Insular Affairs (DOI-OIA) and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. Outside technical assistance was provided by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the CRC Reef Research Center.

The decision to undertake the REA was based on a lack of adequate biological data to support the network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA’s) in Pohnpei State. Despite the gains in conservation in Pohnpei, significant gaps in understanding of the biological adequacy of MPA network still exist. A recent publication titled “A Blueprint for Conserving the Biodiversity of the Federated States of Micronesia” pinpoints several key 3 areas of significant biodiversity around Pohnpei which include: marsh; mangrove;

seagrass areas; and inshore and offshore reefs. However, the authors state that their efforts to define key marine ecological systems were “continually confounded by a lack of biological data for lagoons, coral reefs and sea grass beds”. While MPA establishment has been based on best available data on fisheries and biodiversity, key questions remain unanswered. Where are the areas of highest biodiversity in Pohnpei? Are the current MPA’s large enough to protect biodiversity and fisheries? Answers to these questions will have significant impacts on selection of new sanctuaries and also expansion of existing ones and will ultimately be essential to conserving biodiversity and fisheries in Pohnpei.

Objectives of the study were as follows:

1. Assess marine biodiversity and status of marine resources of three key habitats (coral reefs and seagrasses) in Pohnpei island and Ahnd and Pakin atolls.

2. Use survey results to identify areas of biodiversity significance (ABS) for protection.





3. Provide advice on developing a resilient network of MPAs to protect marine biodiversity in Pohnpei island and Ahnd and Pakin atolls. This will require reviewing the size and location of existing MPAs, and making recommendations for the future.

To conduct the assessment, 3 teams of experts were identified and contracted. During June and July 2005, coral experts Emre Turak and Dr. Lyndon Devantier undertook the coral assessment (Turak and DeVantier, 2005). During August and September 2005, Dr.

Gerry Allen conducted the fish assessment (Allen, 2005) and during October and November 2005, Dr. Len McKenzie and Dr. Michael Rasheed conducted the seagrass assessment (McKenzie and Rasheed, 2006). Final and extensive reports for each of the components for the REA are available in PDF format from CSP.

This report contains a synopsis of key findings and recommendations from the three separate REA components which are presented to give the reader an overview of the status of Pohnpei’s biodiversity and areas of biological significance. Recommendations for future actions are also addressed.

4. Unanimous Findings from the REA From analyzing the reports of the coral, fish and seagrass report, two main issues were

unanimous among the authors as follows:

1. Terrestrial-based human activities such as land clearing, dredging for roads and buildings, and human and animal waste are having a noticeable and significant illeffect on Pohnpei’s marine environment.

“Dredging and coral reef mining have also caused significant impacts to marine biota around Pohnpei. In the present study, dredge/coral reef mining impacts, combined with sediment run-off, were clear in Station 13, with low species diversity, particularly on the deep slope, and very high levels of silt reducing water clarity to only a few metres visibility.” Turak and DeVantier, 2005 4 “The only significant and obvious biotic factor that seems to be having a detrimental effect on Pohnpei’s reefs that I observed was an unusually large crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) population in several areas. ……evidence from other areas in the Indo-Pacific provides for a strong correlation between COTS epidemics and coastal pollution, particularly excessive uncontrolled runoff from poorly managed terrestrial habitats that results in increased sediment and nutrient deposition.” Allen, 2005 “Increased sedimentation, particularly to coastal and near shore marine communities was observed at several locations around Pohnpei. The greatest impacts appear from road construction without sufficient sediment-stabilisation mitigation, clearing for infrastructure and cash crops (eg., sakau), and dredging/coral mining near shore and in the lagoon for sand and fill” McKenzie and Rasheed, 2006

2. Ahnd atoll contains fish, coral and seagrass habitats that, if conserved, would make a significant contribution to biodiversity conservation for Pohnpei and the Eastern Caroline Islands.

“The development of And and Pakin Atolls as MPAs will aid in conservation of many of the highest scoring locations in respect of key bioidversity attributes, including stations scoring highly in terms of rarity and replenishment potential,…….” Turak and DeVantier, 2005 “Ant and Pakin atolls are certainly prime areas for future MPA establishment, and ones that I know are presently under consideration by CSP. These locations present a rare opportunity to combine genuine atoll MPAs with those already established at Pohnpei, to provide a network of high-island and atoll environments under a single “blanket” of conservation management. There are few, if any, existing MPA networks on the globe that offer protection and management opportunities of such diverse habitats in close proximity.” Allen, 2005 “The inclusion of Ahnd atoll into the states MPA program would aid in conservation” McKenzie and Rasheed, 2006

5. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Reef Building Corals

5.1 Executive Summary The report describes the results of surveys of biodiversity and status of coral communities of Pohnpei, Ahnd and Pakin Atolls in June - July 2005.

The project had five main objectives:

1) Conduct a survey of species diversity by identifying hard and soft corals and other benthic marine organisms and by compiling a detailed list of species for each site and for the survey region in general;

5

2) Assess coral community types, their current status and health, and the extent of impacts on these reefs from disturbances such as coral bleaching, Crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks, destructive fishing practices, and terrestrial runoff;

3) Collect samples of hard corals and other benthic organisms which are difficult to identify in the field for further identification;

4) Analyze and interpret the data in relation to the broad and specific aims of the marine assessment, as defined in the proposal “Rapid Ecological Assessment of Pohnpei Lagoon and Ahnd Atoll”;

5) Map and rank the coral reefs visited for biodiversity conservation value These objectives were achieved during field surveys conducted using SCUBA at 36 stations around Pohnpei, Ahnd and Pakin Atolls, selected to provide a broad range of reef habitat types, as developed in relation to different environmental conditions (e.g. distance from shore, water clarity, wave energy and exposure, slope angle, depth). At most stations (survey areas of ca. 1 ha), deep and shallow sites were surveyed concurrently, representing the deeper reef slope (usually 10 m depth) and the shallow slope, reef crest and flat ( 10 m depth) respectively. Two types of information were recorded during the

ca. one and a half hour SCUBA survey swims at each station:

1) an inventory of species, genera and families of sessile benthic taxa; and

2) an assessment of the percent cover of the substrate by the major benthic groups and status of various ecological - environmental parameters.

Coral Diversity: In total, some 330 species of reef-building (hermatypic) corals in 61 genera from 14 scleractinian families were recorded, several of which, in the genera Montipora, Acropora and Alveopora, may be undescribed. A large number of the collected specimens require further taxonomic work, and it is likely that the overall species tally from the present survey for reef-building corals will approach 350 species or higher. Several species of hydrozoan ‘fire-corals’ Millepora were also present. Soft coral diversity of c. 20-24 genera was significantly less than other areas in the central IndoPacific and Southwest Pacific. Soft coral overall abundance was also low. Overall diversity was higher than the Banda Islands (Maluku, Indonesia) or the N. Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Diversity was lower than Palau (with c. 400 species), Kimbe Bay and Solomon Sea, showing a degree of attenuation at both species and generic level from most areas of the Indo-Pacific centre of diversity (Coral Triangle), with c. 500 species and 82 genera. Stations with highest local diversity ( 100 species) were widespread around Pohnpei, Ahnd and Pakin Atolls, but restricted to mid-lagoon and outer reef areas.

Most near shore stations of Pohnpei were relatively low in biodiversity, likely caused by impacts over the past several decades (see later).

Distribution range extensions: Most of Pohnpei’s corals are widespread species with distribution ranges across much of the Indo-west Pacific. Others have more restricted distributions in the north-central Pacific. Some 42 species were not previously known to occur in the FSM, many of which show major range extensions, most from the Coral Triangle to the west and / or Papua New Guinea to the south; others from more further a field, being known previously only from the western Indian Ocean.

6 Coral abundances and local distributions: Many of the coral species present were locally widespread and have reproductively-viable local populations, many of regional importance. By contrast, some corals had locally restricted distributions, and were also locally uncommon or rare, and are thus less likely to form locally viable populations.

Rather, their presence may result from dispersal of larvae from further a field. For some of these species, larger populations exist in functioning and/or proposed MPA’s elsewhere, although others are likely to be poorly represented at present. Management attention may be focused on such species as the region's MPA network is developed, and comprehensive species – abundance data becomes available from other areas of the FSM.

Of particular note in such regional conservation planning are species with restricted global distribution ranges and generally low abundance. Pohnpei hosts populations of some 20 such species, and a further set of species that may be undescribed, providing a high degree of global importance to the area and conferring international conservation value to these reefs.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |


Similar works:

«Praxis, Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer 2010 ISSN 1756-1019 Enlightened Self-Interest: In Search of the Ecological Self (A Synthesis of Stoicism and Ecosophy) BARTLOMIEJ LENART UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Abstract Neass’ Ecosophy and the Stoic attitude towards environmental ethics are often believed to be incompatible primarily because the first is often understood as championing an ecocentric standpoint while the latter espouses an egocentric (as well as an anthropocentric) view. This essay, however, argues...»

«J.G. Pausas – Bark thickness and fire regimes – Functional Ecology Supplementary information Appendix S1. Methods for studying bark thickness Measuring bark thickness Bark thickness varies ontogenetically with tree size (Fig. 4) and thus any measure of bark thickness should be associated with the diameter of the stem where the bark thickness was measured, and also the location on the tree (i.e., height of the bole, or distance to the tip for branches). Ontogenetic variation in bark...»

«THIRTY YEARS AFTER A TREE-PLANTING PROJECT: A POLITICAL ECOLOGY PERSPECTIVE ON BEHAVIOR AND LAND CHANGES IN RURAL HAITI By ANDREW TARTER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010 1 © 2010 Andrew Tarter 2 To my family, the Tarters, who love Haiti 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS All steps in the course of a lifetime lead to the present moment, and my case is no exception; many...»

«1 Z.J. Farris Curriculum vitae Zach J. Farris, PhD Adjunct Faculty ∞ Postdoc Researcher ∞ Virginia Tech Address: 124 Cheatham Hall Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Phone: (540) 818 0119: Fax (540) 231-7580 Email : zjfarris@vt.edu Website: www.zachfarris.yolasite.com Post-doc research: www.maddoginitiative.com EDUCATION 2014 Ph.D. Virginia Tech (Dept. of Fish & Wildlife Conservation). Dissertation: “Carnivore ecology across the Masoala-Makira...»

«SONIC WARFARE Technologies of Lived Abstraction Brian Massumi and Erin Manning, editors Relationscapes: Movement, Art, Philosophy, Erin Manning,  Without Criteria: Kant, Whitehead, Deleuze, and Aesthetics, Steven Shaviro,  Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear, Steve Goodman,  SONIC WARFARE Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear Steve Goodman The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England ©  Massachusetts Institute of...»

«On Theory in Ecology Pablo A. Marquet Andrew P. Allen James H. Brown, et al. SFI WORKING PAPER: 2014-06-018 SFI Working Papers contain accounts of scienti5ic work of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Santa Fe Institute. We accept papers intended for publication in peerreviewed journals or proceedings volumes, but not papers that have already appeared in print. Except for papers by our external faculty, papers...»

«Prognoza bezpośredniego zagrożenia. INFRASTRUKTURA I EKOLOGIA TERENÓW WIEJSKICH INFRASTRUCTURE AND ECOLOGY OF RURAL AREAS Nr 8/2008, POLSKA AKADEMIA NAUK, Oddział w Krakowie, s. 5–16 Komisja Technicznej Infrastruktury Wsi Marek Tarnawski, Bogusław Michalec PROGNOZA BEZPOŚREDNIEGO ZAGROŻENIA PODTOPIENIEM TERENÓW MIEJSCOWOŚCI GROMIEC I SZYJKI W WYNIKU ODDZIAŁYWANIA SPIĘTRZENIA RZEKI WISŁY STOPNIEM WODNYM DWORY THE FORECAST OF THE DIRECT SOPPY THREAT OF THE TERRAINS OF LOCALITY...»

«Thames Water Utilities Ltd 2W0H Lower Thames Operating Agreement Final Confidential TECHNICAL APPENDIX D ECOLOGICAL DATA AND LITERATURE REVIEW Cascade Consulting Technical Appendix D Thames Water Utilities Ltd 2W0H Lower Thames Operating Agreement Final Confidential Table of Contents Summary D.1  Overview – Literature and Data Collation and Review D.1.1  Introduction D.1.2  Methodology for Stage 1 Review D.2  Fish Communities of the Lower Freshwater River Thames D.2.1  Literature Review...»

«The effects of commercial sea-surface activity in Milford Sound: An initial scoping and information gathering report Prepared for Environment Southland Paul Sirota Department of Geography University of Otago 20-02-2006 Contents Summary 3 1.0 Introduction 4 1.1 Annotated bibliography 4 2.0 Ecology of Milford Sound 4 5 2.1 Marine Mammals 5 2.1.1 Dolphins 7 2.1.2 New Zealand Fur Seals 8 2.1.3 Whales 3.0 Other Marine Biota 8 8 3.1 Black Coral (Antipathes fiordensis) 10 3.2 Sea Urchin (Evenchinus...»

«Global Ecology Institute Report of Kenya visit Goal of the visit Review of Watershed Management Plan of the Muvitha Kathemboni watershed Table of content Summary Places and issues assessed during the Kitui visit Sustainable Water Management as the basis for rural and urban plannin Description of ecological and hydrological situation of the watershed Landscape restoration Recommendations Proposal for long term engagement, models and regenerative water management Education programs for...»

«Sediment Dynamics and the Hydromorphology of Fluvial Systems (Proceedings of a symposium held in 487 Dundee, UK, July 2006). IAHS Publ. 306, 2006. A gradient or mosaic of patches? The textural character of inset-flood plain surfaces along a dryland river system MARK SOUTHWELL & MARTIN THOMS Water Research Lab, Institute of Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Australia Central Territory 2601, Australia m.southwell@student.canberra.edu.au Abstract This paper investigated the textural...»

«CONSERVATION ECOLOGY AND PHYLOGENETICS OF THE INDUS RIVER DOLPHIN (PLATANISTA GANGETICA MINOR) Gillian T. Braulik A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of St. Andrews 2012 Full metadata for this item is available in Research@StAndrews:FullText at: http://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/ Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3036 This item is protected by original copyright This item is licensed under a Creative Commons...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.