FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 8 |

«by Angela D. Hughes Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

An Ecological Study on Red Sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.) in Wild Blueberry Fields in

Nova Scotia


Angela D. Hughes

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

for the degree of Master of Science


Dalhousie University

Halifax, Nova Scotia

in co-operation with

Nova Scotia Agricultural College

Truro, Nova Scotia

April 2012

© Copyright by Angela D. Hughes, 2012



The undersigned hereby certify that they have read and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate Studies for acceptance a thesis entitled “An Ecological Study on Red Sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.) in Wild Blueberry Fields in Nova Scotia” by Angela D. Hughes in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.

Dated: April 18 2012 Supervisor: _________________________________

Readers: _________________________________







DATE: April 18, 2012 AUTHOR: Angela D. Hughes TITLE: An Ecological Study on Red Sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.) in Wild Blueberry Fields in Nova Scotia DEPARTMENT OR SCHOOL: Department of Environmental Sciences DEGREE: MSc CONVOCATION: October YEAR: 2012 Permission is herewith granted to Dalhousie University to circulate and to have copied for non-commercial purposes, at its discretion, the above title upon the request of individuals or institutions. I understand that my thesis will be electronically available to the public.

The author reserves other publication rights, and neither the thesis nor extensive extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author’s written permission.

The author attests that permission has been obtained for the use of any copyrighted material appearing in the thesis (other than the brief excerpts requiring only proper acknowledgement in scholarly writing), and that all such use is clearly acknowledged.

–  –  –


Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures


List of Abbreviations and Symbols Used


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction to the Problem

1.2 Wild Blueberry History

1.2.1 Species

1.2.2 Blueberry Management

1.3 Weeds in Blueberries

1.3.1 General Weed Management

1.4. Red Sorrel

1.4.1 Species

1.4.2 Management

1.5 Botrytis Blight

1.5.1 Pruning

1.5.2 Impact of Weeds on Disease

1.6 Honey bee

1.6.1 Species

1.6.2 Foraging

1.6.3 Foraging on Non-Native Weeds

1.6.4 Management

Chapter 2 Red Sorrel Management with Pronamide

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Material & Methods

2.2.1 Study Sites

2.2.2 Experimental Design

2.3 Statistical Analysis

2.4 Results & Discussion

2.4.1 Impact of Kerb Applications on Blueberries

2.5 Conclusions

iv Chapter 3 The Impact of Red Sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.) on Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Activity and Botrytis cinerea Spore Germination in a Wild Blueberry Field

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Materials & Methods

3.2.1 Study Sites

3.2.2 Timing of Blueberry & Red Sorrel Flowering and Sorrel Pollen Release.......... 33 3.2.3 Impact of Red Sorrel Density on Pollinator Activity

3.2.4 Effect of Red Sorrel Pollen on B. cinerea Spore Germination and Floral Infection Effect of Red Sorrel Pollen on Infection of Wild Blueberry Flowers by B. cinerea

3.3 Statistical Methods

3.4 Results and Discussion

3.4.1 Timing of Blueberry and Red Sorrel Flowering and Sorrel Pollen Release....... 38 3.4.3 In Vitro Germination of Botrytis cinerea Spores and Red Sorrel Pollen............ 45 3.4.4 Infection of Mature and Immature Blueberry Flowers by B. cinerea Spores and Red Sorrel Pollen

3.4.5 Honey Bee Observations

3.5 Conclusions

Chapter 4 Conclusions

4.1 Overall Conclusions

4.2 Recommendations

4.3 Management recommendations


–  –  –

Table 2.1 Average blueberry stem height and floral bud counts at Mt.

Thom and Kemptown Nova Scotia in 2009 and 2010….............. 24 Table 2.2 Density and biomass of red sorrel ramets and blueberry stems at two sites for the 2-year blueberry production cycle in Nova Scotia…………………………………………………………… 26 Table 2.3 Percent ground cover of blueberry and red sorrel in two Nova Scotia fields in 2009 and 2010………………

Table 2.4 Blueberry yield and profit after applications of Kerb in the fall and sprout year at two crop year fields in Nova Scotia………… 29 Table 3.

1 Crop year blueberry stem density counts in plots with and without red sorrel in a Nova Scotia blueberry field…………….. 54

–  –  –

Figure 3.1 Percent open blueberry and red sorrel flowers in blueberry fields in A) Collingwood 2009 B) Debert 2009 C) Collingwood 2010 and D) Debert 2010.

Error bars represent standard errors.……………

Figure 3.2 Red sorrel pollen grain release from 20 stems in A) 2009 and B) 2010 in two Nova Scotia blueberry fields……………….

.. 42

–  –  –

Figure 3.4 Percent germination of B.

cinerea spores in the presence of increasing concentrations of red sorrel pollen………………. 46 Figure 3.5 Percent infected blueberry flowers following inoculation at the F4 or F7 stage of development with suspensions of B.

cinerea (B.C.) alone or with red sorrel pollen………………. 47

–  –  –

Red sorrel is a perennial weed in wild blueberry fields that decreases yield. Multiple experiments were conducted to evaluate its impact on blueberry pollination, Botrytis blight incidence, and berry yield. Kerb applications did not significantly impact blueberry stem or floral bud formation. Removal of red sorrel with Kerb increased blueberry yield at both sites. However a double application had no difference than one application. Blueberry and red sorrel flowering overlapped and red sorrel pollen grains were found on blueberry flowers in both years at all sites. Red sorrel pollen grains increased the incidence of germinating spores in Petri dishes and this relationship was adequately modeled with a three parameter, exponential rise to a maximum. Red sorrel pollen significantly increased disease incidence on immature blueberry flowers. Honey bees foraged from blueberry and red sorrel flowers, but there was no evidence to suggest that they favored red sorrel flowers over blueberry flowers.

–  –  –

First of all I would like to thank my supervisor Nathan Boyd for all your patience and encouragement without your time an understanding I would not be where I am today. A sincere thank you to my committee members Paul Hildebrand and Chris Cutler for all your guidance, time and knowledge without you this project would not have been possible. I would like to send a large bear hug out to the blueberry growers and field scouts. Thank you for allowing me to tromp around in the blueberry fields of NS.

Without you and your hard work and dedication to this industry where would we be?

Thank you to Nancy MacLean, and Anna Fitzgerld for their expertise and help with and use of lab material. Thank you to Scott White for all his interest and input over the years.

To my family and friends, thank you for your encouragement and love throughout this entire journey.

–  –  –

1.1 Introduction to the Problem Wild blueberry (Vaccinium augustifolium Ait.) is the number one fruit crop in Nova Scotia in terms of total acreage, export sales, and total value to the province’s economy (Robichaud 2006; Strik and Yarborough 2005). In 2010, the wild blueberry industry produced 16, 500 tones of blueberries and contributed over $13 million dollars to the annual farm-value in Nova Scotia alone (Stats Canada 2010).

Wild blueberries are grown in six Canadian provinces and 36 U.S. states (Moore

1993) and are continuing to expand. They are a unique horticultural crop as they are not planted but developed from native stands. They are an increasing popular crop grown in many parts of the world (including Canada, United States, Norway and China) for their antioxidant properties and health benefits (Howatt 2008). In 1996, blueberries were found to be the highest in antioxidant activity out of 41 fruits and vegetables tested (Prior et al. 1996).

Weed control is the most important and most common challenge in commercial production. Weeds compete with the wild blueberry for nutrients, light and moisture.

They also impede harvest activities, decrease berry quality, and may be a crop contaminant. There are many problematic weeds that occur in the blueberry fields (Esser 1995; Sampson et al. 1990), but red sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.) is one of the most common. In a survey from 1984-1985 it was found that red sorrel was the third most common weed in wild blueberry fields (McCully et al. 1991). In 2000-2001 sorrel was the most abundant weed out of 125 weed species recorded and it had increased 43% since the 1984-1985 survey (Jensen and Sampson 2001, unpublished data). It is a

–  –  –

copious seed production. It is a concern due to its impact on yields, interaction with the disease Botrytis blight and possible interaction with honey bees.

There are several diseases that impact blueberry growth and yields. Botrytis blight caused by Botrytis cinerea Pres.:Fr. is an occasional but destructive fungal disease (Hildebrand et al. 2001) that overwinters as a dormant mycelium or sclerotia on blueberry and other plant debris including red sorrel (Lambert 1990; Hildebrand et al.

2001). On blueberries, B. cinerea appears mostly on expanded corollas under favorable conditions (Hildebrand et al. 2001) and outbreaks of Botrytis blight tend to occur in coastal areas where fog is prevalent.

Wild blueberry pollination is essential for increased fruit and larger berry formation. There are numerous species of native pollinators which are associated with pollination of the wild blueberry (Finnamore and Neary 1978; Morrissette et al. 1985) and their efficiency is well documented (McGregor 1976; Fisher et al. 1993). However, these native pollinators are not sufficiently abundant to ensure adequate pollination of all flowers in blueberry fields (Boulanger et al. 1967; Mohr and Kevan 1987). Thus, introduced bees such as bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson.), alfalfa leafcutter bees (Megachile rotundata F.), and honey bees (Apis millifera L.) are frequently used to enhance blueberry fruit set.

There is a lack of published peer-reviewed literature on the interaction between red sorrel, Botrytis blight and honey bee activity in wild blueberry fields. I hope to broaden our understanding of the ecological impacts of these interactions and determine if they are detrimental or beneficial to the crop.

–  –  –

Wild blueberries are native to northeast North America and are an important food source for birds and other wild animals. Native Americans enjoyed them long before the first Europeans discovered them in North America (Wood 2004). Early explorers such as Samuel de Champlain documented that Native Americans gathered and dried wild blueberries for use in the winter months and would add them to meals (Wood 2004).

They encouraged the growth of blueberries by periodically burning fields which would quickly regenerate new shoots (Howatt 2008). The first European settlers found them to be similar to types of berries that grew in their homeland such as the blueberry in Scotland, whortleberries in Ireland, bilberries in Denmark, blabar in Sweden, and bickberren and blauberren in Germany (Howatt 2008).

The commercial development of today’s wild blueberry industry began in the late nineteen forty’s and early nineteen fifties (Kinsman 1993). In Yarmouth County Nova Scotia during the early 1800’s specific areas were repeatedly burned due to forest fires and the land soon filled in with blueberry and other plants that thrive in acidic soils (Wood 2004). Early records of harvesting and selling wild blueberries date back to the1800’s. At that time, berries were handpicked and sold in baskets in nearby towns and shipped in barrels or cans to the Boston market (Kinsman 1986).

Today, commercial production of wild blueberries is limited to a rather small area in eastern Canada and the north-eastern United States, in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland & Labrador, Quebec and Maine (Howatt 2008). Nova Scotia is the third largest producer of wild blueberries in the world and frozen blueberries are one of Canada’s major exports (USDA 2012). In recent years,

–  –  –

rich in antioxidant compounds that fight free radicals that are associated with cancer, heart disease and premature aging (Howatt 2008).The industry has seen many changes along the way and continues to evolve today.

1.2.1 Species The blueberry plant is a member of the Ericaceae or heath family, genus Vaccinium, subgenus Cyanococcus. There are three main blueberry species of economic importance: (1) the highbush blueberry, V. corymbosum L., (2) the wild ‘lowbush’ blueberry, V. angustifolium, Aiton, and (3) the rabbiteye blueberry, V. ashei Reade (Gough and Korcak 1995). Commercial wild blueberry fields consist of native clones of V. angustifolium and/or V. myrtilloides (Strik and Yarbourough 2005.) The plant is a perennial that spreads vegetatively by roots (Vander Kloet 1998) and by seed. Shoots are low growing reaching 10 to 60 cm in height. New shoots of maturing plants develop from dormant buds on underground stems called roots (Kinsman 1993).

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 8 |

Similar works:

«WestminsterResearch http://www.westminster.ac.uk/research/westminsterresearch The architecture of the extended mind: towards a critical urban ecology Jon Goodbun School of Architecture and the Built Environment This is an electronic version of a PhD thesis awarded by the University of Westminster. © The Author, 2011. This is an exact reproduction of the paper copy held by the University of Westminster library. The WestminsterResearch online digital archive at the University of Westminster aims...»

«Advice to the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (the Committee) on an Amendment to the list of Threatened Ecological Communities under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) 1 Name of the ecological community Natural grasslands on basalt and fine-textured alluvial plains of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland.This advice follows the assessment of: i. A nomination to list the...»

«Fish Identification Guide For Throw trap Samples Florida International University Aquatic Ecology Lab April 2007 Prepared by Tish Robertson, Brooke Sargeant, and Raúl Urgellés Table of Contents Basic fish morphology diagrams..3 Fish species by family..4-31 Gar.. 4 Bowfin..4 Tarpon.. 5 American Eel..5 Bay Anchovy..6 Pickerels..6-7 Shiners and Minnows..7-9 Bullhead Catfishes..9-10 Madtom Catfish..10 Airbreathing Catfish..11 Brown Hoplo..11 Orinoco Sailfin Catfish..12 Pirate Perch..12...»

«Kabbalah and Ecology: God’s Image in the More-Than-Human World, David Seidenberg, Cambridge University Press, 2015 – 6/26/2015 Bibliography Organized according to the following sections: Published in Kabbalah and Ecology: Classical rabbinic literature and pre-rabbinic literature (primary sources through the eighth century) Medieval Jewish thought – philosophy and Kabbalah (primary sources, ninth to the seventeenth century) Chasidut (Hasidism), early modern Jewish thought, and modern...»

«Environment Water Community Solution Exchange for the Water Community Consolidated Reply Query: Use of R. O. Systems for Providing Safe Drinking Water Experiences; Referrals Compiled by Nitya Jacob, Resource Person and Sunetra Lala, Research Associate Issue Date: 17 August 2009 From Latha Bhaskar, Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala Posted 25 June 2009 I work with the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Kerala, on...»

«Marla del Pilar Pérez-Lugo Calle Alhambra #109 Mayagüez, PR 00682 Tel. (787) 806-8584 / e-mail: marla.perez2@upr.edu EDUCATION 2003 Ph.D. in Environmental Sociology from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Dissertation: Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and the Mass Media 2001 Graduate Certificate in Human Dimensions of Environmental Change from the Department of Human Ecology at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 2000 Master’s Degree in Sociology from Rutgers, the State...»

«A453 Widening M1 Junction 24 to A52 Nottingham Environmental Statement Volume 1 January 2009 PART 3 : DISRUPTION DUE TO CONSTRUCTION 3.1 Methodology Introduction This assessment considers the potential disruption within the study area (see 3.1.6 3.1.1 below) resulting from the construction phase (as opposed to the operation of the completed road once opened for use) of the project. In most cases, effects during construction have been assessed as part of the specialist scheme environmental...»

«SONIC WARFARE Technologies of Lived Abstraction Brian Massumi and Erin Manning, editors Relationscapes: Movement, Art, Philosophy, Erin Manning,  Without Criteria: Kant, Whitehead, Deleuze, and Aesthetics, Steven Shaviro,  Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear, Steve Goodman,  SONIC WARFARE Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear Steve Goodman The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England ©  Massachusetts Institute of...»

«THE COMPARATIVE CLAW MORPHOLOGY, PHYLOGENY, AND BEHAVIOR OF FIDDLER CRABS (GENUS UCA) A Dissertation Presented by Michael Samuel Rosenberg to The Graduate School in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Ecology and Evolution State University of New York at Stony Brook May 2000 State University of New York at Stony Brook The Graduate School Michael Samuel Rosenberg We, the dissertation committee for the above candidate for the Doctor of Philosophy...»

«EEK! -OLOGY: WHAT HAPPENS IF PERMAFROST THAWS? Overview: In this lesson students explore the effects of thawing permafrost on plant, animal and human inhabitants of the Arctic, set up a hypothetical temperature model and predict possible changes in the Arctic landscape in the 21st century.Objectives: The student will: • give a presentation about the relationship between permafrost and ecology; and • graph hypothetical temperature data to simulate climate modeling. Targeted Alaska Grade...»

«LA CONTEMPLACIÓN PARA ALCANZAR AMOR Y LA ECOLOGÍA1 La Contemplación para Alcanzar en la dinámica de los EE Para situar la Contemplación para Alcanzar Amor CAA en el texto de los EE, podemos tener presente lo que se podríamos llamar la dinámica, el movimiento de los EE. Una moción presupone una representación espacial, donde sucede un movimiento; tiene un inicio, un medio y un fin. Una moción de consolación o de desolación es un movimiento que se produce en nosotros, que empieza,...»

«International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences (IJRANSS) Vol. 1, Issue 1, June 2013, 19-24 © Impact Journals ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF THE WEST AFRICAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS SENEGALENSIS) IN ENIONG CREEK, SOUTH NIGERIA OGOGO A. U1, ENIANG E. A2, NCHOR A. A3 & NKAMENYIN O. O4 1,3 Department of Forestry & Wildlife Resources Management, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria 2,4 Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.