«UDC 633.2/4:631.522/.524 doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2014.6.36rus doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2014.6.36eng FORAGE CROPS SELECTION: PROGRESS AND ...»
[AGRICULTURAL BIOLOGY], 2014, ¹ 6, pp. 36-45 ISSN 313-4836 (Online)
UDC 633.2/4:631.522/.524 doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2014.6.36rus
FORAGE CROPS SELECTION: PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES
W.R. Williams All-Russian Fodder Research Institute, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, korp. 1, ul. Na- uchnii Gorodok., Lobnya, Moscow Province, 141055 Russia, å-mail email@example.com Received January 30, 2013 Abstract In the Breeding Center of V.R. Williams All-Russian Fodder Research Institute more than 150 varieties of forage plants have been created for 42 years. Of these, the most widespread 85 varie- ties cultivated in Russia are not inferior to the best foreign varieties in productivity and exceed them in hardiness, the edaphic resistance to acidity and salinity, and phytocoenotic compatibility in mix- tures. The Trifolium pratense L. varieties VIK 7, tetraploid VIK, Altyn, Topaz, Rannii 2, Trio, Mars, and the T. repens L. varieties Yubileynii, VIK 70 are characterized by a precisely expressed ecological individuality, symbiotic activity and different maturing time. The Medicago L. new varieties Vega 87, Lada, Nakhodka, Pastbishchnaya 88, Lugovaya 67, Selena, Soleustoichivaya, with the dry matter yield at 12-14 t/ha in the Central non-Chernozem zone, possess various phytocenotic, edaphic, symbiotic properties. More than 40 new varieties of Bromopsis inermis Leys., Phleum pratense L., Fes- tuca pratensis Huds, Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Poa pratensis L., providing yield of 11- 12 t/ha and above, are characterized by improved fodder quality and resistance to diseases. In recent years, the varieties of Vicia sativa L. and V. villosa Roth., high-resistant to environmental and phyto- coenotic factors, are created for different use. The V. sativa L. varieties Lugovskaya 48, Uzunovskaya 91, Vera, and the V. villosa Roth. variety Lugovskaya express precocity and a reduced insistence to heat, especially during fruiting. For restoration of lost biodiversity and efficiency of the degraded pas- tures in arid areas of the Russian South, 18 new varieties of fodder xerohalophytes are created, par- ticularly Barkhan, Dzhangar of Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad., Salang of Salsola orientalis S.G.
Gmell., Nogana, Alsu of Camphorosma lessingii (Litv.), Favorite, Tulkin, Bar of Eurotia ceratoides (L.) C.A. Mey., etc. These varieties are widely used for restoration of deserted lands. With reference to perennial bean and cereal grasses, more than 25 breeding technologies are patented in the Russian Federation. Adaptive systems for seed reproduction and the «know-how» for growing perennial and annual grasses are offered. With regard to the achieved results and recent data of fundamental biology a new breeding paradigm is substantiated, based on biogeocenotic principles.
Keywords: breeding, seed, fodder crops, breeding techniques, alfalfa and perennial grasses, arid forage plants.
December 2014 marks the 42nd anniversary of the founding the selection center as part of the W.R. Williams All-Russian Fodder Research Institute.
Formed in the Soviet Union the complex for breeding and seed production of fodder crops currenly has fairly high scientific potential of 6 specialized and 12 complex breeding centers and more than 20 scientific breeding and seed production units in research institutions. The Breeding Center of the W.R. Williams All-Russian Fodder Research Institute is leading in the development of theory and practice of seed selection.
The main fundamental and applied aspects the researchers of the institute are working on are as follows: i) creating system of climatically and environmentally differentiated and economically specialized fodder crops complementary each other; ii) development and improvement of breeding and selection technologies; iii) original and commercial seed production; iiii) education; iiiii) coordinating national and international programs on fodder crops.
In the W.R. Williams All-Russian Fodder Research Institute there were created more than 150 varieties of clover, alfalfa, annual leguminous fodder crops, perennial cereal grasses, arid fodder plants of new generation, including 85 varieties for past 20 years. The progress in fodder grass production in most 36 Russia regions, particularly in the humid zone, is most due to clover breeding.
The studies of biological, ecological and agronomic peculiarities of clover to which P.A. Lisitsyn, I.S. Travin, V.D. Shcherbachev, P.A. Sergrrv, the famous Russian scientists, greatly contributed, were initiated in 1930s. Thereat an extensive breeding based on mass selection was mainly used. Since the middle 1950s the research group of clover breeding, and then the Department, this group was transformed into in 1972, were headed by A.S. Novoselova.
Due to theoretical and methodological advance, 25 climatically and ecologically differentiated clover varieties such as VIK 7, Tetraploidnii VIK, Mars, Rannii 2, Trio, Altyn, Topas, Dobrynya, VIK 77, TOS 870, Orlik, VIK 84, Stodolich, Ratibor, Mariya, Pamyati Lisitsyna, Pamyati Burlaca (Trifolium pratense); Yubileinii, VIK 70, Lugovik (Trifolium repens); Pervenets, Mayak (Trifolium hybridum) were derived in this Deparment, recently headed by M.Yu. Novoselov. Chemical mutagenesis and experimental polyploidy were basically used. These varieties are effective in the northern Russian regions providing dry weight mass yield of 10-12 t per 1 ha. Ultra early ripening clover varieties contribute to expansion of sustainable seed production zone 300-350 km to the north and up to 70 km to the east with the seed yields of 306 centner per 1 ha, being enough to meet the demand on seeds in Russia and to sell abroad to Belarus and Germany (1-4). The Topaz variety obtained by edaphic selection is tolerant to soil acidification (pH 4.5-5.5) and produces the dry weight biomass and seeds at 10-11 t per 1 ha and 2-3 centner per 1 ha, respectively (1).
Our priority lies in scientific, methodological and management interrelations of the experts from 14 institutions taking into account varying soil and climatic conditions on the Russia territory. The monograph «Ecological breeding of clover» (Moscow, 2012) summarizes the results of these complex investigations.
In 1999 the creation of the varieties of red clover basic for sustainable forage production and agriculture biologization in Chernozem zone of Russia was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation in Science and Technology.
Alfalfa is an important leguminous fodder plant in the world. Nevertheless, it was atypical in the Russian Nechernozem’e under relatively low temperatures, specific water regime and the acidic podzol soils. Due to theoretical experiments initiated in 1930s, in 1956 the Severnaya Gibridnaya variety capable to accumulate enough biomass but, unfortunately, failed to produce mature seeds has been originated by A.M. Konstantinova. Further a new generation of the alfalfa varieties was obtained, namely Vega 87, Lada, Pastbishnaya 88, Lugovaya 67, Selena, Soleustoichivaya, Sonata, Nadezhda, Nakhodka, Galiya, Agniya, which are specific with respect to their environmental, phytocenotic, edaphic traits and agrotechnologies. Vega variety with seed productivity at 2-4 centner per 1 ha was the first variety capable to reproduce successfully in the Central Nechenozem zone. Using phytocenotic selection the Pastbishnaya 88, Lugovaya 62, Nakhodka varieties were bred which in combination with cereal grasses guarantee the dry weight yield of fodder mass at 11-13 t/ha and up to 2.5 t/ha protein output. A phytocenotic longevity is the main peculiarity of these varieties, as after 4-5 year exploitation the ratio of leguminous component is not less than 35-45 % (5, 6).
According to L.G. Ramenskii (9), there is a threshold for prosperity of the species when its number is enough competitive. With respect to the competitiveness the Pastbishnaya and Lugovaya varieties overcome the threshold for prosperity being sustainable botanical species in polycomponent agrophytocenosis. Alfalfa edaphic breeding also has been developed, and the obtained Selena plants can produce 10-12 t/ha dry mass on acidic soils at ðÍ 4.5-5.6.
Symbiotic technologies are the promising strategy as it allows improving the nitric and phosphorus plant nutrition due to the plant-microbe interaction.
37 This approach based on integration of the genetic systems of plants and microorganisms is successfully being developed (7, 8), and the methods for isolation, selection and estimation of rhizobia strains have been patented. Symbiotic selection was used to design the integrated variety-and-microorganism effective systems such as the alfalfa Vega, Lugovaya 67, Pstbishchnaya varieties and 415b rhizobia strain, and Selena and Agniya varieties with 404b strain, and the clover varieties with local Ê-18 strain. These symbiotic systems allow to harvest 12-14 t dry matter and 2.0-2.5 t protein per 1 ha and accumulate biological nitrogen in soil of 150-200 kg/ha due to roots and crop residues. In the terms of ecology such systems are a biogeocenotic formation at a supraorganismal level denoted by botanist L.G. Rameskii in 1925 (9) and zoologist V.N. Beklemishev in 1951 (10) as consortia which are the primary units of self-organized and self-sustainable agroecosystems sufficient in nitrogen and partly in phosphorus nutrition.
Due to the developed theoretical bases and methodology the varieties of annual legumes with different climatic and environmental features and economic specialization have been originated. They are the spring vetch Lugovskaya 83, Lugovskaya 85, Lugovskaya 98, Vera, Lugovchaanka, Lugovskaya 24, Vakentina, Neposeda and the winter vetch Lugovskaya 2 (11). Many of them are early ripening and produce seeds at 3.0-4.0 t/ha over 65-88 day vegetation. Besides, they are less heat-loving, thus being successfully cultivated in regions with insufficient heat and excessive soil moisture. Yu.S. Tyuring has suggested creating a specialized forage vetch, and the Lugovskaya 98 variety is now widely used.
Perennial forage grasses and landscape are major components of the hay and pasture agro-ecosystems, so more than 20 varieties of perennial grasses were zoned. They are smooth brome-grass Fakelnii and Morshanets, timothy grass VIK 85, meadow fescue Krasnopoimskaya 92, tall fescue Lira, cocksfoot Morshanskaya 89, perennial ryegrass Tetraploidnii, VIK 66 and Duet, meadow grass Pobeda, Tambovets, fescue-ryegrass hybrid VIK 90 (Festulolium). They produce 11-12 t/ha dry matter, are more nutritionally valuable and more tolerant to diseases (12, 13).
Drought and salt tolerant fodder xerohalophytes are used on the arid Russia territories, i.e. kochia Barkhan, Dzhangar, Delta and Istok varieties, eurotia Favorite and Bar varieties, salsola Salang variety, Camphorosma lessingii Alsu and Nogana varieties, buckwheat Tsag variety, artemisia Sonet variety, and licorice Fortuna variety, which were obtained in cooperation with the researchers from A.N. Kostyakov Institute of Hydro Engineering and Land Reclamation (Moscow) and Kalmykia Research Institute of Agriculture (Elista). These fodder crops are widely used in degraded dry steppes and semi-steppes to increase productivity of the pastures (14-16).
Collecting gene pool together with application of biotechnology and investigations on plant immunity helpful to create tolerant initial material are being the basic approaches (17, 18). In 1930s the mobilization of fodder plant genetic recourses began. In more than 45 expeditions held in cooperation with the N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR, St. Petersburg), over 6 000 specimens of the wild grass seeds have been sampled in different regions.
As a result, valuable alfalfa, clover, sweet clover, sainfoin, rump, foxtail, wheatgrass, wheatgrass forms, as well as endemics have been found, and this work is ongoing. Currently the gene pool collection includes 447 species and about 6500 specimens (16). For clover the polymorphic molecular markers are patented (19).
Two clover genetic maps are built in cooperation with Japanese researchers.
Biotechnolgies were used to create promising forms for breeding (20-23) such as the clover tolerant to soil acidity, the transgenic clove and alfalfas regenerants, the breeding alfalfa forms tolerant to salination. Using extremely high 38 tolerance to salinity the alfalfa Soleustoichivaya variety was obtained which is successful on the secondary salinized soils in Nizhnee Povolzhie.
In view of disease-resistant fodder plant development the infectious agents were indicated with identification of those the most aggressive. The procedure for cultivation of these pathogens was suggested. Using field test the tolerance was estimated in more than 3500 plants. The disease resistant plants were derived by subjecting to high levels of disease pressure with further recurrent selection, hybridization and polycrossing. As a result the clover, smooth bromegrass and timothy grass resistant to diseases have been developed (24).
Generally, plant tolerance to stresses, the selection of disease-resistant forms, genetic transformation and regeneration, and finding microsymbionts of the selected plants were under consideration (25-38).
Much attention was paid to seed production of fodder crops such as fescue Krasnopoimskaya 92 and Kvarta varieties, hairy vetch, alfalaf Sonet and Tambovchanka varireties, red fescue Diana and Sigma varieties, festulolum VIK 90 and Izumrudnii varieties, meadow grass Tambovets variety.
The location of cultivation areas are revised for clover seed reproduction, for cultivation and commercial reproduction of alfalfa perennial ryegrass, timothy, meadow fescue, cocksfoot and smooth brome-grass, and 16 parameters are currently developed for seed quality assessment.
The leading position of the Center is due to wide research cooperation with other Russian researchers and the foreign scientists from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, USA, Israel, Belarus, and Mongolia. Thus, the mobilization of genetic resources and breeding fodder crops is particularly curried out together with Norddeutsche Pflanzenzucht Hans-Georg Lembke KG (Germany). The breeders of the Fodder Research Institute were recognized the leaders in Russia in developing botanic, geographical, environmental and evolutionary bases for breeding fodder plants to manage a sustainable forage production.