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«Appendix A: Excerpts from Of Pandas and People (2nd ed., 1993), the published version used by students, Quote A: “This book has a single goal: to ...»

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Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 1 of 18

Appendix A:

Excerpts from Of Pandas and People (2nd ed., 1993), the published

version used by students,

Quote A:

“This book has a single goal: to present data from six areas of

science that bear on the central question of biological origins.

We don't propose to give final answers, nor to unveil The Truth.

Our purpose, rather, is to help readers understand origins better, and to see why the data may be viewed in more than one way.” (Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed. 1993, pg. viii)

Quote B:

“If science is based upon experience, then science tells us the message encoded in DNA must have originated from an intelligent cause. But what kind of intelligent agent was it? On its own, science cannot answer this question; it must leave it to religion and philosophy. But that should not prevent science from acknowledging evidences for an intelligent cause origin wherever they may exist. This is no different, really, than if we discovered life did result from natural causes. We still would not know, from science, if the natural cause was all that was involved, or if the ultimate explanation was beyond nature, and using the natural cause.” (Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed., 1993, pg. 7)

Quote C:

“Today we recognize that appeals to intelligent design may be considered in science, as illustrated by current NASA search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Archaeology has pioneered the development of methods for distinguishing the effects of natural and intelligent causes. We should recognize, however, that if we go further, and conclude that the intelligence responsible for biological origins is outside the universe Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 2 of 18 (supernatural) or within it, we do so without the help of science.” (Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed., 1993, pg. 126-127)

Quote D:

“Since both written language and DNA have that telltale property of information carried along by specific sequence of ‘words’ and since intelligence is known to produce written language, is it not reasonable to identify the cause of the DNA’s information as an intelligence too?” (Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed., 1993, pg. 57)

Quote E:

“On the other hand, the experimental work on the origin of life and the molecular biology of living cells is consistent with the hypothesis of intelligent design. What makes this interpretation so compelling is the amazing correlation between the structure of informational molecules (DNA, protein) and our universal experience that such sequences are the result of intelligent causes. This parallel suggests that life itself origin to a master intellect.” (Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed., 1993,pg. 58)

Quote F:

"The experimental work on the origin of life and the molecular biology of living cells is consistent with the hypothesis of intelligent design. What makes this interpretation so compelling is the amazing correlation between the structure of informational molecules (DNA, protein) and our universal experience that such sequences are the result of intelligent causes. This strong analogy leads to the conclusion that life itself owes its origin to a master intellect. One can talk about adding innumerable random mutations, but proponents of intelligent design still wonder: How were such impressive gains Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 3 of 18 in functional information consolidated? It is a fair and crucial question."

(Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed., 1993, pg. 85)

Quote G:

“In the world around us, we see two classes of things: natural objects, like rivers and mountains, and man-made structures, like houses and computers. To put it in the context of origins, we see things resulting from two kinds of cause: natural and intelligent.” (Of Pandas and People, 2nd ed., 1993, pg. 6) Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 4 of 18 Appendix B

Document A:

Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 5 of 18

Document B:

Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 6 of 18

Document C:

Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 7 of 18

Appendix C:

Quotes from Scientists on Abrupt Appearance:

“The fossil record with its abrupt transitions offers no support for gradual change... transitions between major groups are characteristically abrupt.” (Stephen Jay Gould, “The Return of Hopeful Monsters,” Natural History, 86:22, 24 (June-July, 1977) (emphasis added)) “Anything truly novel always seemed to appear quite abruptly in the fossil record.” (Mayr, E., One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought 138 (Harvard University Press, 1991) (emphasis added) “It is this relatively abrupt appearance of living phyla that has been dubbed the ‘Cambrian explosion.’” (Valentine, J.W. et al., “Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian Explosion,” Development 126:851-859 (1999) (emphasis added)) “The ‘Cambrian explosion’ refers to the seemingly abrupt appearance of diverse metazoan groups…” (Conway Morris et al., “Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China,” Nature, 402:42-46 (Nov 4, 1999) (emphasis added)) Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 8 of 18





Appendix D:

Selected Scientific Publications of Intelligent Design Proponents which Post-date the publication of Of Pandas and People Stephen Meyer, “The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117(2004):213-239.

Meyer argues that competing materialistic models (Neo-Darwinism, Self – Organization Models, Punctuated Equilibrium and Structuralism) are not sufficient to account for origin of the information necessary to build novel animal forms present in the Cambrian Explosion. He proposes intelligent design as an alternative explanation for the origin of biological information and the higher taxa.

Lönnig, W.-E. Dynamic genomes, morphological stasis and the origin of irreducible complexity, Dynamical Genetics, Pp. 101-119.

Biology exhibits numerous invariants -- aspects of the biological world that do not change over time. These include basic genetic processes that have persisted unchanged for more than three-and-a-half billion years and molecular mechanisms of animal ontogenesis that have been constant for more than one billion years. Such invariants, however, are difficult to square with dynamic genomes in light of conventional evolutionary theory. Indeed, Ernst Mayr regarded this as one of the great unsolved problems of biology.

In this paper Dr.Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig Lönnig Senior Scientist in the Department of Molecular Plant Genetics at the Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding Research employs the design-theoretic concepts of irreducible complexity (as developed by Michael Behe) and specified complexity (as developed by William Dembski) to elucidate these invariants, accounting for them in terms of an intelligent design (ID) hypothesis.

Jonathan Wells, “Do Centrioles Generate a Polar Ejection Force? Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 98 (2005): 37-62.

Most animal cells contain a pair of centrioles, tiny turbine-like organelles oriented at right angles to each other that replicate at every cell division. Yet the function and behavior of centrioles remain mysterious. Since all Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 9 of 18 centrioles appear to be equally complex, there are no plausible evolutionary intermediates with which to construct phylogenies; and since centrioles contain no DNA, they have attracted relatively little attention from neo Darwinian biologists who think that DNA is the secret of life. From an intelligent design (ID) perspective, centrioles may have no evolutionary intermediates because they are irreducibly complex. And they may need no DNA because they carry another form of biological information that is independent of the genetic mutations relied upon by neo-Darwinists. In this paper, Wells assumes that centrioles are designed to function as the tiny turbines they appear to be, rather than being accidental by-products of Darwinian evolution. He then formulates a testable hypothesis about centriole function and behavior that—if corroborated by experiment could have important implications for our understanding of cell division and cancer. Wells thus makes a case for ID by showing its strong heuristic value in biology. That is, he uses the theory of intelligent design to make new discoveries in biology.

Scott Minnich and Stephen C. Meyer, “Genetic Analysis of Coordinate Flagellar and Type III Regulatory Circuits,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Design & Nature, Rhodes Greece, edited by M.W. Collins and C.A. Brebbia (WIT Press, 2004).

This article underwent conference peer review in order to be included in this peer-edited proceedings. Minnich and Meyer do three important things in this paper. First, they refute a popular objection to Michael Behe’s argument for the irreducible complexity of the bacterial flagellum. Second, they suggest that the Type III Secretory System present in some bacteria, rather than being an evolutionary intermediate to the bacterial flagellum, is probably represents a degenerate form of the bacterial flagellum. Finally, they argue explicitly that intelligent design is a better than the NeoDarwinian mechanism for explaining the origin of the bacterial flagellum.

Peer-Reviewed Books Supportive of Intelligent Design Published by Trade Presses or University Presses W.A. Dembski, The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 10 of 18 This book was published by Cambridge University Press and peer-reviewed as part of a distinguished monograph series, Cambridge Studies in Probability, Induction, and Decision Theory. The editorial board of that series includes members of the National Academy of Sciences as well as one Nobel laureate, John Harsanyi, who shared the prize in 1994 with John Nash, the protagonist in the film A Beautiful Mind. Commenting on the ideas in The Design Inference, well-known physicist and science writer Paul Davies remarks: “Dembski’s attempt to quantify design, or provide mathematical criteria for design, is extremely useful. I’m concerned that the suspicion of a hidden agenda is going to prevent that sort of work from receiving the recognition it deserves.” Quoted in L. Witham, By Design (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003), p. 149.

Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution (The Free Press, 1996).

In this book Behe develops a critique of the mechanism of natural selection and a positive case for the theory of intelligent design based upon the presence of “irreducibly complex molecular machines” and circuits inside cells. Though this book was published by The Free Press, a trade press, the publisher subjected the book to standard scientific peer-review by several prominent biochemists and biological scientists.

Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley, Roger L. Olsen, The Mystery of Life’s Origin: Reassessing Current Theories (Philosophical Library, 1984, Lewis & Stanley, 4th ed., 1992).

In this book Thaxton, Bradley and Olsen develop a seminal critique of origin of life studies and develop a case for the theory of intelligent design based upon the information content and “low-configurational entropy” of living systems.

John Angus Campbell and Stephen C. Meyer, Darwinism, Design, & Public Education (Michigan State University Press, 2003) This is a collection of interdisciplinary essays that addresses the scientific and educational controversy concerning the theory of intelligent design.

Accordingly, it was peer-reviewed by a philosopher of science, a rhetorician Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 11 of 18 of science, and a professor in the biological sciences from an Ivy League university. The book contains five scientific articles advancing the case for the theory of intelligent design, the contents of which are summarized below.

Books Supportive of Intelligent Design Published by Prominent Trade Presses Guillermo Gonzalez and Jay W. Richards, The Privileged Planet: How Our Place in the Cosmos is Designed for Discovery (Regnery Publishing, 2004).

Gonzalez and Richards develop a novel case for the theory of intelligent design based on developments in astronomy and planetary science. They show that the conditions necessary to produce a habitable planet are extremely rare and improbable. In addition, they show that the one planet we are aware of that possesses these characteristics is also a planet that has characteristics uniquely adapted to scientific exploration, thus suggesting not simply that the earth is the recipient of the fortunate conditions necessary for life, but that it appears to be uniquely designed for scientific discovery.

William Dembski, No Free Lunch: Why Specified Complexity Cannot be Purchased without Intelligence (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002).

Dembski refines his scientific method of design detection, responds to critics of his previous book (The Design Inference) and shows how his method of design detection applies to the kind of molecular machines analyzed by Michael Behe in Darwin’s Black Box.

Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Adler & Adler, 1985).



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