WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 13 |

«Doctoral Committee: Professor L. Lacey Knowles, Chair Research Associate Professor Liliana Cortés Ortiz Professor Diarmaid Ó Foighil Professor John ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Biotic and abiotic factors influencing diversification of herbivorous mammals

by

Lucy Tran

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

(Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)

in the University of Michigan

2015

Doctoral Committee:

Professor L. Lacey Knowles, Chair

Research Associate Professor Liliana Cortés Ortiz

Professor Diarmaid Ó Foighil

Professor John C. Mitani

© Lucy Tran

2015

To my parents, for allowing me to follow my dreams, and to Joe, for supporting me while I pursue them ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am forever grateful to Lacey Knowles, Liliana Cortés Ortiz, John Mitani, Diarmaid Ó Foighil, Miriam Zelditch, Dan Rabosky, Catherine Badgley, Qixin He, Anna Papadoupoulou, and Diego Alvarado Serrano for the valuable and thought-provoking discussions of science throughout my graduate training. Miriam Zelditch, Diego Alvarado Serrano, Eladio Marquez, Elen Oneal, Raquel Marchan-Rivadeneira, and Hayley Lanier are recognized for their instrumental guidance with morphometrics for Chapter II and Carlos Anderson for troubleshooting the BAMM analyses for Chapter III. I am indebted to Anna Papadopoulou, Qixin He, Mark Christie, Pavel Klimov, Raquel Marchan-Rivadeneira, and Joseph Knoedler for their insightful comments on previous versions of the manuscripts comprising this dissertation. Thanks are also owed to the members of the Knowles lab throughout the years for the scientific enrichment, in particular John McCormack, Amanda June Zellmer, Danielle Edwards, Huateng Huang, and Tim Connallon. I cannot thank Ken Nagy, Travis Longcore, and my Spring 2006 Field Biology Quarter friends enough for introducing me to the joys of field research. Thea Wang, Kyle Larson, Corey Duberstein, and Shauna Price were inspiring research mentors and role models. I could not have completed this thesis without the sanity check provided by my friends (near or far) throughout the years, especially Linda Quach, Nancy Su, Rachel Cohen, Jenabel Lee, Qixin He, Kelsey Pressler, Jingchun Li, Leiling Tao, Gyorgy Barabas, and Michael Sheehan. You all have my deepest gratitude. Funding for this dissertation was generously provided by the Museum of iii Zoology Hinsdale and Walker Awards, EEB Block grants, Rackham International Research Award, American Society of Mammalogists Grants-in-Aid, and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

iv

–  –  –

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II: THE ROLE OF ECOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITY IN SHAPING DISPARATE

DIVERSIFICATION TRAJECTORIES IN A BICONTINENTAL PRIMATE RADIATION...10

CHAPTER III: INTERACTION BETWEEN DIGESTIVE STRATEGY AND NICHE

SPECIALIZATION PREDICTS SPECIATION RATES ACROSS HERBIVOROUS

MAMMALS

CHAPTER IV: BOUNDS OF HISTORICAL CLIMATIC INSTABILITY DIFFER AMONG

HERBIVOROUS MAMMALS

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION

–  –  –

Table 2.1.

Fits of diversification models to phylogenetic data

Table 2.2.

Fits of the folivory-dependent speciation and extinction models

Table S2.1.

Landmarks and semilandmarks of mandible shape

Table S2.2.

Cranio-mandibular dental (CMD) characters

Table S2.3.

Taxonomy of colobine monkeys (subfamily Colobinae)

Table S2.4.

Diet data of species

Table S2.5.

Fits of diversification models to phylogenetic data

Table S2.6.

Fits of the folivory-dependent speciation and extinction models

Table 3.1.

Lineages of terrestrial, herbivorous mammals that were analyzed in this study..........81 Table 3.2. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares regressions

Table S3.1.

List of sources for trophic level and fermentation state of species considered in this study

Table S3.2.

List of dietary items in primate species' diets, reclassified using the PanTHERIA scheme

Table S3.3.

Description of variables used to compute the maximum environmental disparity metric

Table 4.1.

Description of variables used to calculate multivariate climate anomaly..................133 Table 4.2. Phylogenetic signal of multivariate climate anomaly and species richness...............134

–  –  –

Table 4.4.

Scores from phylogenetic principal components analysis (PCA) of climate anomaly.

Table 4.5.

Species at climatic instability limits of hindgut and foregut-fermenting mammals...137 Table 4.6. Regression analyses of climate anomaly and species richness

Table S4.1.

Area under the operator receiving curve (AUC) of MaxEnt models for species analyzed in this study





–  –  –

Figure 2.1.

Lineage-through-time plots of the African and Asian clades

Figure 2.2.

Disparity through time of feeding morphology

Figure 2.3.

Folivory-dependent rates of speciation and extinction

Figure S2.1.

Gamma statistics for the phylogenies

Figure S2.2.

Node height tests of feeding morphology

Figure S2.3.

Phylogeny of Colobinae

Figure 3.1.

Cladogram of 46 lineages of terrestrial, herbivorous mammals selected for comparative analyses

Figure 3.2.

Relationship between niche specialization and speciation

Figure 3.3.

Differences in niche specialization between foregut and hindgut-fermenting clades.

Figure 3.4.

Differences in speciation between foregut and hindgut-fermenting clades..............101 Figure S3.1. Scatterplot of diet breadth reclassified in this study and data from PanTHERIA for primates

Figure 4.1.

Maps of species richness

Figure 4.2.

Plot of phylogenetic principal components of climate anomaly

Figure 4.3.

Phylogenetic principal components bi-plot

Figure 4.4.

Comparisons of climate anomaly and species richness between hindgut and foregut

–  –  –

Figure 4.5.

Geographic distributions of artiodactyl species at limits of climatic instability.......154 Figure 4.6. Climatic instability space of herbivorous mammals

–  –  –

Both biotic and abiotic factors are known to control diversification. Though these factors are believed to operate at distinct temporal and spatial scales (i.e., the multilevel mixed model), often the scales at which key processes and outcomes of diversification operate are ambiguous or confused. To explore the dependence of factors promoting diversification on spatiotemporal scales as well as the biology and ecology of clades, my dissertation examined the interactive effects of lineage-specific traits with ecology and environment at multiple taxonomic, temporal, and spatial scales. I focused on the effects of a novel digestive strategy, foregut fermentation, in herbivorous mammals. In Chapter II, I tested predictions of a popular macroevolutionary model to evaluate the role of an abiotic factor, ecological opportunity, in the diversification of the foregut-fermenting Old World colobine monkeys. This work corroborated a growing body of work that the model is sensitive to the geographic scale of diversification, in particular to multiple dispersal-divergence events within a single radiation. In addition to the abiotic factor, I also found evidence for an important role of dietary specialization, a biotic factor, on the diversification of Asian colobines. Deviating from the current multilevel mixed model, these findings showed that both biotic and abiotic factors can be important controls on diversification at long timescales and large geographical scales. In Chapter III, I tested the effects of foregut fermentation on the relationship between ecological specialization and speciation rates in the terrestrial, herbivorous mammals. My findings indicated that foregut fermentation did mediate

–  –  –

differences in speciation among clades at intermediate temporal and geographical scales. In Chapter IV, I investigated the effects of environmental change, specifically historical climatic perturbations, and its interaction with digestive strategy on speciation rates of the terrestrial, herbivorous mammals. I found that climatic instability since the Last Glacial Maximum had stronger, multifarious effects on the richness of foregut-fermenting mammals. In contrast, hindgut herbivores experienced bounded instability across the continents on which they occur.

These findings support important roles for both biotic and abiotic factors on species richness over short timescales and intermediate geographical scales. Overall, my findings from Chapters II-IV together show that not only are the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on diversity important on spatiotemporal scales not currently recognized in the multilevel mixed model, the effects of the factors themselves are likely to vary based on the biological and ecological differences found within and among clades.

–  –  –

A longstanding question in evolutionary biology asks why some groups of organisms are phenomenally speciose with exceptional phenotypic diversity while others are depauperate in both aspects. Radiations span the continuum of species and phenotypic diversity, with the classic cases of adaptive radiation lying at one end with many species and morphological forms. Some groups such as the cichlids (Farias et al. 1999) are represented at both extremes of the continuum. In such cases the disparity in species and phenotypic richness among lineages sharing common ancestry implicates differing ecological and/or environmental contexts (Seehausen 2007), lineage-specific properties (Moyle et al. 2009), or the joint action of these two factors in the generation of disparate diversification outcomes.

Climatic and orographic events (Richardson et al. 2001) influence the probability of speciation and extinction by controlling the strength of gene flow between populations and the likelihood of population persistence. Furthermore, often populations encountering vacant or underutilized niches (“ecological opportunity”) (Schluter 2000) are assumed to speciate rapidly due to the lack of ecological constraints posed by competition and predation (Seehausen 2007, Yoder et al.

2010). Radiations on islands and in water bodies that were initially depauperate of species highlight the importance of ecological opportunity in promoting phenotypic and species diversity

–  –  –

specific traits also potentially influence diversification (Moyle et al. 2009). This dissertation examines the interaction between lineage-specific traits, ecology, and environment on the diversification and morphological evolution of exemplar clades. I apply state-of-the-art methods in phylogenetic comparative biology, morphometrics, and species distribution modeling to address these questions at varied taxonomic, temporal, and spatial scales. I focus on the effects of a novel digestive strategy, foregut fermentation, in the herbivorous mammals. Foregut fermentation evolved independently at least four times in the marsupials, sloths, artiodactyls, and primates and at least once in birds.

Foregut fermentation may operate as a “key innovation” (Simpson 1944, 1953) that contributed to the diversification of herbivorous mammals, similar to the decoupled pharyngeal jaws (Seehausen 2006) and mouth-brooding (Salzburger et al. 2005) of African cichlid fish, subdigital toepads of anole lizards (Losos 2009), and nitrile-specifier protein in pierid butterflies (Wheat et al. 2007). Key innovations are phenotypic novelties that allow lineages to exploit new or previously inaccessible resources upon their acquisition and are commonly invoked in cases of elevated speciation rates, species richness, and/or phenotypic diversity in a broad range of organisms (e.g., Berenbaum et al. 1996, Bond and Opell 1998, Lynch 2009, Vamosi and Vamosi 2010, Rutschmann et al. 2011).

In Chapter II, I test for temporal concordance between rates of diversification and morphological evolution to evaluate the role of ecological opportunity in the foregut-fermenting colobine

–  –  –

morphological evolution are high early in a radiation but decline later due to reduced niche availability (Lovette and Bermingham 1999, Phillimore and Price 2008, Burbrink and Pyron 2010, Yoder et al. 2010). In conjunction with the biogeographic history of colobines, my findings suggest that constraints arising from dietary specialization and decreasing availability of new adaptive zones over time explain temporal changes in diversification but not morphological evolution in the Asian radiation. Due to the lack of appropriate forest habitat, ecological opportunity did not play a major role in the African radiation. Lastly, I attribute departures from the early burst model to the iterative series of diversification events that follow the monkeys' dispersal to Eurasia.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 13 |


Similar works:

«Gun Play • Jay Mechling Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate “the gun problem” with “the boy problem,” sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and schools. Following the approach of play scholar Gregory Bateson, this article offers an understanding of play with guns, maintains this moral...»

«  1   Curriculum Vita John Edward Korstad June 1, 2011 Personal Data: Born: July 4, 1949, in Woodland, California, U.S.A. Marital Status: Married to Sally D. (Steffen) Korstad; 4 children and currently 5 grandchildren 301 E. 122nd Ct. S., Jenks, OK 74037 Home Address: Current Position: Professor of Biology (since Fall 1980) Department of Biology Oral Roberts University 7777 S. Lewis Tulsa, OK 74171 Phone Numbers: Home: (918) 853-2580 School: (918) 495-6942 Cell: (918) 853-3579 Fax: (918)...»

«Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Towards Classification and Functional Description of Enzymes A case study of feruloyl esterases D.B.R.K. GUPTA UDATHA Industrial Biotechnology Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Gothenburg, Sweden 2013 Towards Classification and Functional Description of Enzymes A case study of feruloyl esterases D.B.R.K. GUPTA UDATHA © D.B.R.K. GUPTA UDATHA, 2013. ISBN 978-91-7385-770-3 Doktorsavhandlingar vid...»

«The 6th IAL Symposium and Annual ABLS Meeting Asilomar, CA, USA, 13–19 July, 2008 BIOLOGY OF LICHENS AND BRYOPHYTES The American Bryological and Lichenological Society (ABLS) will be meeting jointly with the Intenational Association for Lichenology (IAL 6) at the Asilomar Conference Center. Thus, a partially integrated program is planned. Organized by: The International Association for Lichenology, the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, the British Lichen Society, Arizona State...»

«Protocols for Surveying and Evaluating Impacts to Special Status Native Plant Populations and Natural Communities State of California CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY Department of Fish and Game November 24, 20091 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE The conservation of special status native plants and their habitats, as well as natural communities, is integral to maintaining biological diversity. The purpose of these protocols is to facilitate a consistent and systematic approach to the survey and...»

«International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2003, 16, 65-84. Copyright 2003 by the International Society for Comparative Psychology Application of Behavioral Knowledge to Conservation in the Giant Panda Ronald R. Swaisgood Zoological Society of San Diego, U.S.A. Xiaoping Zhou, Gwiquan Zhang, Wolong Nature Reserve, China Donald G. Lindburg, Zoological Society of San Diego, U.S.A. and Hemin Zhang Wolong Nature Reserve, China Over the past several years we have developed a research program to...»

«Case 4:04-cv-02688-JEJ Document 309 Filed 11/04/2005 Page 1 of 18 Appendix A: Excerpts from Of Pandas and People (2nd ed., 1993), the published version used by students, Quote A: “This book has a single goal: to present data from six areas of science that bear on the central question of biological origins. We don't propose to give final answers, nor to unveil The Truth. Our purpose, rather, is to help readers understand origins better, and to see why the data may be viewed in more than one...»

«REJOINING OF DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS AND GENOME STABILITY: FROM HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS TO BREAK-INDUCED MUTAGENESIS by Zhuobin Liang A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology) in the University of Michigan 2015 Doctoral Committee: Associate Professor Thomas E. Wilson, Co-Chair Associate Professor Lyle Simmons, Co-Chair Associate Professor Anuj Kumar Professor Jianming Li...»

«Studies on the Induction of Embryogenic Globular Structures in Opuntia ficus-indica Samantha Pinheiro da Costa1, Arlete A. Soares2, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt1 1 Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular e 2Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) Fortaleza, CE, Brazil e-mail: arnholdt-schmitt@gmx.de Received August 2001 Dedicated to Prof. Karl-Hermann Neumann, a Pioneer in Tissue Culture Research ABSTRACT In studies on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Opuntia...»

«STATUS REVIEW OF THE LITTLE BROWN MYOTIS (MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS) AND DETERMINATION THAT IMMEDIATE LISTING UNDER THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT IS SCIENTIFICALLY AND LEGALLY WARRANTED *Healthy Little brown myotis in flight *Little brown myotis carcasses in Aelous Cave, VT in 2009 Credit: M. Brock Fenton Credit: Jonathan D. Reichard, Boston University’s CECB Status Review Conducted by: Thomas H. Kunz, Ph.D Jonathan D. Reichard, Ph.D. Boston University’s Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology In...»

«Studies on Macroscale Structuralization of Porous Coordination Polymers Kenji Hirai 2013 Preface The study in this thesis has been carried out under the direction of Professor Susumu Kitagawa at during April 2007 March 2013 at Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University. The author is greatly indebted to Professor Susumu Kitagawa for his significant guidance, valuable suggestions and continuous encouragement. The author wishes to...»

«SYSTEM SZKOLENIA MŁODZIEŻY w klubie Górnik Łęczna S.A OPRACOWAŁ: TADEUSZ ŁAPA Trener Koordynator Prezentacja w ramach obowiązków uczestnika Kursu Trenerów UEFA PRO w Szkole Trenerów PZPN w roku 2006/7 Spis treści 1.Wstęp 1.1. Cel systemu 1.2. Rada Trenerów 2.Organizacja szkolenia;2.1. Schemat szkolenia, 2.2. Nabór i selekcja, 2.3. Organizacja klas sportowych, 2.4. Opieka szkoleniowa, 2.4.1Przydział trenerów do poszczególnych zespołów. 2.4.2. Udział zawodników I zespołu...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.