«Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences In Vitro Study to Investigate the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Different ...»
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical
In Vitro Study to Investigate the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Different
Toothpastes and Mouth Rinses.
Farogh Gibraiel, Monika Rajput, Mohini Singh Rajput, Manisha Singh, Neha Saxena,
Anushree Vishal, and Abhimanyu Kumar Jha*.
Department of Biotechnology, IMS Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.), India.
ABSTRACTThe aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of different dentifrices (toothpastes and mouth rinses) and to study the variations in their effectiveness against the test microorganisms. Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were selected as test microorganisms against which the different toothpastes and mouth rinses were tested. The procedure included the evaluation of dentifrices, antimicrobial assay by modified agar well diffusion method and finally statistical analysis. This investigation showed that toothpaste having natural formulation gave maximum zones of inhibition against Candida albicans at all dilutions and E. coli at 1:1 dilution. Results from our study have shown that toothpaste formulation containing natural antimicrobial agents were more effective in controlling the oral microflora compared to toothpastes containing synthetic antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Toothpastes and mouth rinses, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, zone of inhibition, natural antimicrobial agents.
*Corresponding author March - April 2014 RJPBCS 5(2) Page No. 245 ISSN: 0975-8585
INTRODUCTIONDental caries and related oral diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis are most common oral diseases throughout the world including both developed and developing countries, affecting people from all ages of life. The frequency of these oral diseases is continuously increasing with change in eating habit of among peoples of different age group and increased consumption of sugar . The occurrence of dental caries is approximately 60
- 65% among the Indian population [2, 3]. The epidemiological studies evidently reflect a noticeable increase in the prevalence of dental caries in many developed and developing countries . Dental problems are of three types, formation of dental plaques, dental caries and periodontal diseases . Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, is an infection, generally bacterial in origin, localized and transmissible, that results in the destruction of hard dental tissue. It results from accumulation of plaque on the surface of the teeth and biochemical activities of complex micro-communities. Streptococcus mutans is one of the main opportunistic pathogens of dental caries . The pathogens of dental caries, play a central role in fermenting carbohydrates resulting in acid production, and leading to the demineralization of the tooth enamel . In addition, other microflora like Escherichia coli and Candida are also associated with active caries lesions. C. albicans is the most common yeast isolated from the oral cavity. It is by far the fungal species most commonly isolated from infected root canals, showing resistance to inter-canal medication . Poor oral hygiene is one of the reasons for growth of these microbes and their harmful activities.
Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections that affect the supporting structure of the teeth (gingival, cementum, periodontal membrane and alveolar bone). The endotoxins, hydrolytic enzymes and toxic bacterial metabolites are involved in this disease. Gingivitis, an inflammatory condition of gum, is the most common form of periodontal disease. Serious forms of periodontal disease that affect the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone may results in tooth loss. Streptococci, spirochetes and bacteroides are found to be the possible pathogens responsible for the disease.
Toothpaste is a gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene .
Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, is a common toothpaste ingredient in the United Kingdom.
Triclosan or zinc chloride prevents gingivitis and, according to the American Dental Association, helps reduce tartar and bad breath . Herbal toothpastes contain baking soda, aloe, eucalyptus oil, myrrh, plant extract, and essential oils. Various Oral microflora includes most commonly Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.
Action of fungus
Like Candida albicans causes Oral thrush in which curd-like white patches formed inside the mouth, on the tongue and palate and around the lips. It may also cause cracked, red, moist areas of skin at the corners of the mouth. Candida species causes infections in immuno-compromised patients, individuals on drug therapy, and the chronically ill
Action of bacteria Like Streptococcus mutans and E. coli, they accumulate on both the tooth surface and gingival epithelium. The endotoxins, hydrolytic enzymes and toxic bacterial metabolites are released by them causing demineralization and destruction of tooth. At the sites with a low rate of salivary flow, grooves on the occlusal surfaces of molar and premolar teeth provide microscopic retention sites for plaque bacteria.
Action of dentifrices on fungal and bacterial activity: They contain remineralization factors such as calcium and fluoridated components maintaining mineral balance. They also contain antibacterial and antifungal agents which kills them by disrupting their cell wall.
Proper method of tooth brushing helps to control growth of pathogenic oral microflora.
Toothpaste is a gel dentifrice and mouthrinse is a solution dentifrice used as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
Though similar studies have been reported in literature, the studies are comparable as the constituent herbs of the dentifrices used in the present study are different from those of the other published data. Though it has been reported that the herbal dentifrices are inferior in inhibiting cariogenic microbes, the ingredient herbs of these study are different .
MATERIALS AND METHODSFor the present study, two strains of micro-organisms- Escherichia coli [MTCC- 68] and Candida albicans [MTCC- 227] were taken. The media used were Nutrient agar media and Yeast peptone dextrose agar media respectively for each microorganism. We prepared dilutions of several brands of toothpastes with different compositions and also mouth rinses (TABLE 1). Other important materials required were double distilled water, pyrogen free water, test tubes, petri plates, micro pipettes, gel puncher.
TABLE 1: Ingredients of Common Toothpastes and Mouth Rinses marked as A to I
A Anacyclus pyrethrum (akkalkara), Embeliaribes, Azadirachta indica (neem), Curcuma longa (haldi) Acacia arabica (babool), Salvadora persica (misvak) Xantho xylumalatum (tomar), Quercus infectoria Syzygium aromaticum (lavang) Piper sylvaticum (pepal) Barleria prionitis ( bajradanti) Mimusop selengi B Carrageenan, Calcium carbonate, Silica, Titanium dioxide, Sodium silicate, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium monoflourophosphate,Sodium saccharin, Flavour,Sorbitol, Triclosan,Sodium lauryl sulfate or SLS C Sodium fluoride, Hydrated silica,Zinc sulphate, Water,Sodium saccharin, Sorbitol Triclosan, PEG-32,Sodium lauryl sulfate or SLS Cocamidoproplbetain, cellulose gum and flavor D Hydrated silica, Calcium carbonate, Water, Potassium nitrate,Sorbitol, flavour, Cellulose gum, Sodium silicate, Benzyl alcohol,Sodium lauryl sulfate or SLS, Sodium saccharin, Perlite,Sodium monoflurophosphate Cl 74160
Cl 74260 Cl 77891 E sodium Fluoride 0.21%. Inactive Ingredients: Sorbitol, Water, Hydrated Silica, Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Xylitol, PEG-8, Flavor, Titanium Dioxide, Xanthan Gum, Sodium Saccharin, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, FD&C Blue No. 1., Cl 77891, Cl 42090,Sodium carboxymethylcellulose F Sorbitol, Aqua, Hydrated silica, Glycerin, Silica, Sodium lauryl sulphate, Flavour, Xanthan gum, Titanium dioxide, Sodium saccharin, Menthol, Sodium benzoate G Marichapippali, Sunthi, Karpoor, Tomarbeej, Lvang oil, Sugandhitdravya, Pudina, Satva, Kasmi, Haritaki, Shudha H Purified water, Sorbitol, Alcohol, Poloxamer 407, Benzoic acid, Sodium saccharin, Mouthwash flavour, Eucalyptol, Methyl salicylate, Thymol, Sodium benzoate, Menthol, CL 47005, CL 42053
Our method was divided into three phases:
Evaluation of dentifrices Antimicrobial Assay by modified agar well diffusion method Statistical Analysis Evaluation of dentifrices Solutions of selected toothpastes and mouthrinses made by mixing 3gm of toothpaste/mouthrinses in 3 ml of pyrogen free distilled water to give 1:1 dilution.
Then further dilutions made were 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16.
Antimicrobial Assay NAM and YPDA plates were prepared to assess the antimicrobial activity.
NAM and YPDA plates were seeded with 0.5 ml of 24 h broth cultures of Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.
Plates were allowed to dry for 1 h.
Sterile gel puncher is used to cut one central and five wells at equidistance in each of the plates. 0.02 ml of dentifrices dilutions was introduced into each of the five wells.
Plates were incubated at 37˚C for 24 h for E. coli and 48 h for C. albicans.
Experiments were repeated thrice.
Calculation of zone of inhibition The average of vertically and horizontally measured diameter of obtained zone of inhibition were taken.
The size of the zone of inhibition is usually related to the level of antimicrobial activity present in the sample or product - a larger zone of inhibition usually means that the antimicrobial is more potent.
Calculation of Standard deviation It was calculated using MS-Excel.
The results of this investigation showed that toothpaste formulation A had maximum zones of inhibition against the test organism Candida albicans compared to all other toothpaste formulations. In Escherichia coli the zones of inhibition were less in comparison to C. albicans but were significantly different at higher dilutions (1:8, 1:16) for toothpaste formulation A. Mouthrinse formulation H showed maximum efficacy against the test organism, Escherichia coli compared to all other mouthrinse formulations. However, mouthrinse formulations I showed a very little anti-microbial activity. The mean values ± standard deviations of zones of inhibition were calculated for all the test organisms. Each experiment was repeated thrice (n = 3). (Refer to TABLE 2 and TABLE 3) TABLE 2: Antimicrobial activity of toothpastes and mouthrises against E. coli
Neglect of oral hygiene is the key to the development of dental diseases. The primary etiological factor for dental diseases is dental plaque. This dental plaque is formed due to accumulation of oral pathogenic microflora, thus tooth surface get coated with a dense complex micro community that ends up in the destruction of hard enamel tissue.
Microflora like Escherichia coli and Candida are associated with active caries lesions.
The oral microorganisms should be kept at a consistent level with oral health by antimicrobial agents.
These substances are added to oral products they kill microorganism by disrupting their cell walls & inhibiting their enzymatic activity. They also prevent bacterial aggregation, slow multiplication & release of endotoxins . Data from our studies are in support of this assertion as all the investigated dental care products exhibited wide variations in their effectiveness against the two test microorganism. Results from previous study like have shown that triclosan containing toothpaste formulations were more effective in controlling the oral microflora compared to non-triclosan containing synthetic toothpastes  however, according to our study, among all the investigated toothpastes, formulation A, which is Non-triclosan based toothpaste, emerged as the most effective in 1:1 dilution for both the used micro-organisms. The antibacterial activity of formulation A is less in comparison to formulation B at higher dilutions.
In case of C. albicans, formulation A appears to be most effective.
This might be due to presence of following compositions:
Anacyclus pyrethrum(akarakya) contain pyrethrine.
Azadirachata indica(neem) contain azadiractin, alkanoid, glycosides, flavanoids and saponins.
Acacia arabica(babul) contain tannins, saponins & glycosides.
Xanthoxylumalatum(tomar) contain bornylacetate, a-terpineol, b-pinene, caryophyllene, limonene, linodokol Syzygiumaromaticum(lavang) contain eugenol (2-methoxy-4-alkyl phenol).
Barleriaprionitis(bajrdanti) contain benzofuran, phenol, cyclohexane, benzoic acid, cyclopropane, carboxylic acid.
Curcuma longa(haldi) contain curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxy curcumin Piper sylvatium(pepal) contain lignoides amides bearing isobutyl pyrodine, pyrones.
The antimicrobial activity of formulation B is due to the presence of triclosan and sodium monofluorophosphate.
Triclosan shows antifungal and antibacterial property while fluoride helps in prevention of tooth decay and dental caries.
Next to these best formulations other toothpastes C, D, E, F, G also contain statistically significant data and this may be due to the ingredients present in their formulations.
Formulation I and H are mouth-rinses and exhibited very less effectiveness compared to other the other test formulations.
This may be due to the ingredients present such as benzoic acid, thymol, eucalyptol, sodium benzoate and povidone iodine There is no other way of knowing their real clinical effects without a randomized clinical trial.
In the present study, the herbal formulations studied appeared to be equally effective as the flourides containing formulations.