«PAPER II. READING (28 points) PART 1 Read the following text and decide whether the statements are TRUE or FALSE : UWAGA: Zamiast tego polecenia ...»
Z JĘZYKA ANGIELSKIEGO
PAPER I. LISTENING (14 see:
PAPER II. READING (28 points)
Read the following text and decide whether the statements are TRUE or FALSE :
UWAGA: Zamiast tego polecenia może być: Choose the best answer A, B or C.
15. Astronomers are sure that there are intelligent species outside Earth.
16. Stephen Hawking claims that aliens’ visit on Earth would be beneficial to humans.
17. He believes that we might not be alone in the universe because of the number of stars and planets.
18. According to Seth Shostak, TV and radio stations and radars could let aliens know we are here.
19. The biggest problem in contacting aliens is the lack of technology.
20. Aliens that are 1,000 light years away would see the Earth as it was 1,000 years ago.
21. In the early days of research, astronomers focused on finding planets like the Earth.
22. On a gas planet, life could exist high in the atmosphere.
IS STEPHEN HAWKING RIGHT ABOUT ALIENS ?
Well, no, according to the eminent physicist Stephen Hawking. “If aliens visited us, the outcome would be the same as when Columbus landed in America, which didn’t turn out well for the Native Americans,” Hawking says. He argues that, instead of trying to find and communicate with life in the cosmos, humans would be better off doing everything they can to avoid contact.
Hawking believes that, based on the huge number of planets that scientists know must exist, we are not the only life form in the universe. There are, after all, billions and billions of stars in our galaxy alone, with, it is reasonable to expect, an even greater number of planets orbiting them. And it is not unreasonable to expect some of that alien life to be intelligent, and capable of interstellar communication. So, when someone with Hawking’s knowledge of the universe advises against contact, it’s worth listening, isn’t it?
Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer at the SETI Institute in California, the world’s leading organization searching for signs of alien existence, is not so sure. “This is an unwarranted fear,” Shostak says. “If their interest in our planet is for something valuable that our planet has to offer, there’s no particular reason to worry about them now. If they’re interested in resources, they have ways of finding rocky planets that don’t depend on whether we broadcast or not. They could have found us a billion years ago.” If we were really worried about letting aliens know we were here, Shostak says, the first thing to do would be to shut down the BBC, NBC, CBS and the radars at all airports. Those broadcasts have been sending messages into space for years — the oldest is already more than 80 light years from Earth — so it is already too late to stop aliens watching our TV programmes.
There are lots of practical problems involved in hunting for aliens, of course, chief among them being distance. If our nearest neighbours were life forms on the (fictional) moon of Endor, 1,000 light years away, it would take a millennium for us to receive any message they might send. If the Endorians were watching us, the 1 light reaching them from Earth at this very moment would show them our planet as it was 1,000 years ago; in Europe that means lots of fighting between knights around castles and, in north America, small bands of natives living on the great plains. It is not a timescale that allows for a quick conversation — and, anyway, they might not be communicating in our direction.
The lack of a signal from ET has not, however, prevented astronomers and biologists (not to mention film-makers) from coming up with a whole range of ideas about what aliens might be like. In the early days of SETI, astronomers focused on the search for planets like ours — the idea being that, since the only biology we know about is our own, we might as well assume aliens are going to be something like us. But there’s no reason why that should be true. You don’t even need to step off the Earth to find life that is radically different from our common experience of it.
Extremophiles are species that can survive in places that would quickly kill humans and other normal lifeforms. These single-celled creatures have been found in boiling hot jets of water that come through the ocean floor, or at temperatures well below the freezing point of water. The front ends of some creatures that live near deep-sea jets are 200°C warmer than their back ends.
On Earth, life exists in water and on land but, on a giant gas planet, for example, it might exist high in the atmosphere, eating food from the air swirling around it. And, as aliens would be so different from us, guessing their motives and intentions if they ever got in touch seems to be something that even Hawking cannot explain.
Paul Davies, an astrophysicist at Arizona State University argues that alien brains, with their different architecture, would interpret information very differently from ours. “Lots of people think that because they would be so wise and knowledgeable, they would be peaceful,” adds Stewart. “I don’t think you can say that. I don’t think you can put human views onto them; that’s a dangerous way of thinking. Aliens are alien. If they exist at all, we cannot simply believe they’re the same as us.”
PART 2 You are going to read a magazine article about five celebrities’ reading preferences. For questions 28 - 37, choose from the celebrities A-E. Some of the celebrities may be used more than once.
A = Lilian Daniels B = Moira Wilkins C= Daniel Long D= Dr Thomas Harley E = Susan Dickson Which statement refers to which celebrity?
28. …… I learnt a lot from this book.
29. …… I am difficult to please.
30. …… I believe people in power should also read this book.
31. …… The book I chose seemed to give me physical sensations.
32. …… The writer’s style is very important for me.
33. …… I suspect that people will ignore the message this book tries to communicate.
34. …… I like books about exciting experiences.
35. …… I would like to have written a similar book if I had its author’s skill.
36. …… I was surprised to find some amusing bits in this book.
37. …… The book I chose could change our lives.
Want to know what’s worth reading this month? Five celebrities make their recommendations to Diana Philips.
A With the winter upon us, long evenings spent by the fire with a good book start sounding more and more attractive. The trouble is, with books being sold at prices you’d expect to pay for bottles of fine wine, how do you decide which ones are worth buying? I asked five well-known celebrities to tell me what they think. Actress Lilian Daniels did not hesitate at all. “The Pumpkin Field is the best novel I’ve read in ages. I found it absolutely convincing, especially the characters, who are 19th century rural people, so I felt as if I was expanding my knowledge of life and my understanding of people’s feelings.” B We don’t often picture glamorous TV presenters as literary types, but Moira Wilkins knocks that stereotype on the head. “I read every day,” she says, “and I have very high standards. There aren’t many books that actually live up to all my expectations. Emily Chalmers’ book, The White Door, is a rare exception. Every word in this book is carefully chosen - in fact it’s the ultimate example of what I consider good writing to be. The plot is excellent as well, and it has an element of humour that you don’t normally expect to find in this type of book.” C Another unexpected reader is former footballer and successful TV personality, Daniel Long. Daniel is a man who loves adventure - both in real life and in his reading - and he chose his book on that basis. “I like good writing,” he says, “but it’s what a book can bring to life for me that I really pay attention to. Every Mountain is a brilliant piece of work. As Darryl Smith, the writer, describes his experiences on some of the world’s most challenging mountains, you feel you’re there with him. I’d look up from the page and feel ice on my face and see the sharp, cold sun reflecting off the snow. It brought back memories for me, since I’ve done some climbing myself, but I think almost any attentive reader will get the same feeling from it.” D Renowned scientist and writer, Dr Thomas Harley, has also stayed on the side of fact - or at least of fact-based speculation. Only One Future, by Peter Weston, is a book I firmly believe everyone ought to read,” he says. “It is a visionary book - it shows us what our future has in store for us if we go on the same way we are at present, and it presents an alternative future as well - the “one future” of the title - which is the only path that holds any hope for us. I do believe that if this book were taken seriously, by governments as well as individuals, the future could truly be bright for coming generations. But, of course, many people consider scientific speculation to be mere fantasy, so I’m afraid this book may not do what it could.” E Last of all, I spoke to stage actress, Susan Dickson. She was adamant about her choice. “I like books that say something to me personally, that reflect the realities of my own life. When I read Danielle Thomas’ marvellous book, Passing Through Pimlico, I thought, ‘Yes! This is it!’ I wish I had the gift to create a book like that. The people in it are so well described that by the end of the book you feel as though you really know them.
I believe that anyone with a spark of imagination will enjoy this book as much as I did.” If you were in any doubt as to which books to spend your hard-earned pounds on, take the celebrities’ advice and go for these obviously excellent choices.
Match the underlined words and phrases in the article to their meanings in the context.
PART 1 Put the verbs in brackets (43-50) into the correct form.
43. A: What is Jane doing?B: She (think) _________ about her new boyfriend.
44. Please remember (buy)_________ some food. The fridge is empty!
45. Are you hungry? I (make)_________ you a sandwich.
46. Bob was arrested yesterday. He (question) _________by two policemen at the moment.
47. I (wait) _________ to see him since eight o’clock. I wonder where he is.
48. Who (wake) _________ you up every morning?
49. 'I will help you.' Tom said he (help) _________ me.
50. If I (be) _________ rich, I'd buy a big house.
PART 2 Choose the correct form: A, B, C or D.
I Ann : At two o’clock last night I (51) (wake)........ up by my neighbour playing loud music. What would you have done in my position ?
Bob: I (52) (go)........ round to his house and asked him (53) (turn)........ it down explaining that it (54) (be)........ the middle of the night.
II Nick was alone at home. Outside it was dark and stormy. He (55) (watch)........ TV when he heard something in the upstairs room. He listened carefully and, yes, there was something up there. 'I wish my parents (56) (not, go)........ to the cinema,' he thought.
III Some thieves (57)........ (break) into my house yesterday. They (58)........ (must, get) in through the window which I (59)........ (leave) open. Unfortunately, none of my neighbours saw anything (60)........
Stress is a term often 61........ in relation to studying – what with exam pressure, assignments, seminar presentations, deadlines, extensions, pressure on computer facilities and so on? Not to 62........ juggling studying with a social life or feelings of isolation and loneliness for lack of a social life. Then there can also be out-of-control debts, poor housing, overcrowding, noise, and adjusting to life in a new 63........ or country.
The key to success is to think 64....... ; take control of your stress and anxiety by learning 65........
techniques to combat it. Be kind to yourself and give yourself ‘me time’ in which you can choose what you want to do. Take proper breaks and eat 66......... Moreover, 67........ problems carefully, don’t just avoid them and hope that they will go away. Talk things through with someone else if necessary. Think about and then organise yourself to take on some form of 68........ activity and enjoy the ‘feel-good factor’ that the resulting release of endorphins gives you. Walk, 69........, run, swim. Meet other people for a chat. Writing about it, talking about it, shouting or moaning about it, all help to relieve stress. Sometimes having a good cry or bashing a pillow can soothe and calm your 70......... of anxiety.
Listening trwa około 25 minut i składa się z dwóch części. Każde nagranie słuchane jest dwukrotnie.
1. TEST WYBORU (8 rozmówców) np.
You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer A, B or C.
TEST WYBORU (6 zdań) np.
You will hear an interview with an expert on different senses. Choose the correct option: A, B or C. Only ONE answer is correct.
9. Jane studied the sense of smell because A she had always been interested in it.
B it was part of her course.
C she found it easy to understand.
PUNKTACJA 64 -70 bardzo dobry 59 -63 plus dobry 53 -58 dobry 48 - 52 plus dostateczny 36 -47 dostateczny