«Enhancing Agricultural Innovation: How to Go Beyond the Strengthening of Research Systems © 2006 The International Bank for Reconstruction and ...»
The World Bank
How to Go Beyond the
Strengthening of Research Systems
© 2006 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
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i Contents Page Preface
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Chapter 1. Why Assess the Value of the Innovation Systems Perspective?
1.1 Knowledge generation and application in a changing agricultural context
1.2 Towards operational agricultural innovation systems
1.3 Grounding the innovation systems concept in the “new agriculture”
1.4 Organization of this study
Chapter 2. The Innovation Systems Concept: A Framework for Analysis
2.2 Origins of the innovation systems concept
2.3 Innovation versus invention
2.4 Key insights from the innovation systems concept for diagnostic and intervention frameworks
2.5 Innovation systems and value chains
2.6 NARS, AKIS, and agricultural innovation systems compared
2.7 Towards practical applications of the innovation systems concept
Chapter 3. Research Methodology and Case Study Descriptions
3.1 Research methodology
3.2 Case study selection
3.3 Information collection
3.4 Case study descriptions
Chapter 4. Innovation System Capacity: A Comparative Analysis of Case Studies.
4.2 Actors, their roles, and the attitudes and practices that shape their roles
4.3 Attitudes and practices
4.4 Patterns of interaction
4.5 The enabling environment
4.6 Summary of the analysis of innovation capacity in the case studies
Chapter 5. Reviewing the Innovation Systems Concept in Light of the Case Studies.
5.2 The nature of contemporary agricultural challenges
5.3 Key characteristics of innovation across the case studies
5.4 Common interventions and their limits
Chapter 6. Towards a Framework for Diagnosis and Intervention
6.2 An intervention framework for developing agricultural innovation systems
6.3 The pre-planned phase in the orchestrated trajectory
6.4 The foundation phase
6.5 The expansion phase
6.6 The nascent phase in the opportunity driven trajectory
6.7 The emergence phase
6.8 The stagnation phase
6.9 A dynamic system of innovation phase
Chapter 7. Conclusions
7.2 The nature of innovation: nine findings
7.3 The value of the innovation systems concept
7.4 Implications for the World Bank
Annex A: Agricultural Innovation Systems: A Methodology for Diagnostic Assessments.100 Annex B: Case Studies and Authors
Annex C: Case Study Detailed Summary Tables
Boxes Box 1.1 Past contributions of science and technology
Box 1.2 The process of knowledge generation and use is changing
Box 1.3 Increased market demand and policy change close the yield gap in maize production in India
Box 1.4 Changing approaches to investing in innovation capacity
Box 2.1 Two views of innovation: the linear and innovation systems models
Box 2.2 Knowledge and the competitiveness of the Chilean salmon industry, past and future
Box 2.3 Theoretical underpinnings of innovation systems
Box 2.4 Small-scale equipment manufacturers and the adoption of zero tillage in South Asia
Box 2.5 Including stakeholders’ demands in the agricultural innovation system:
Mexico’s Produce Foundations
Box 2.6 Reducing rural poverty by linking farmer organizations with public-private partnerships in China
Box 2.7 Community-driven development and agricultural innovation systems
Box 2.8 Participatory, grassroots, and multistakeholder approaches to overcome limitations of the linear model
Box 3.1 A checklist for conducting diagnostic assessments and developing interventions based on the innovation systems concept
Box 4.1 Who gets to innovate? Picking winners versus enabling winners to pick themselves
Box 5.1 Farmer organizations and a new extension approach accelerate agricultural innovation in India
Box 5.2 Foundation for the Revitalisation of Local Health Care Traditions in India:
a successful coordinating body
Box 6.1 Numerical list of interventions mentioned in this chapter, with reference to potential investment approaches from the Agriculture Investment Sourcebook
ii Tables Table 1.1 World value of nontraditional agricultural exports (million US$), 1992 and 2001......9 Table 1.2 Case studies by country and subsector
Table 2.1 Attitudes and practices affecting key innovation processes and relationships.
..........18 Table 2.2 Defining features of the NARS and AKIS frameworks in relation to agricultural innovation systems
Table 3.1 Case studies and selection criteria
Table 4.1 Interaction patterns in support of innovation
Table 4.2 Summary of the analysis of innovation systems in the case studies
Table 5.1 Scope of innovations observed
Table 5.2 Innovation triggers
Table 5.3 Value and developmental significance of case study sectors
Table 5.4 Common interventions and their limitations
Table 6.1 Place of the case studies in the innovation systems typology
Table 6.2 Main characteristics of the four analytical elements in each phase of development in orchestrated and opportunity-driven systems
Table 7.1 Towards approaches that link investments in agricultural science and technology with progress towards sustainable development
Table 7.2 Innovation systems and rural poverty reduction, by type of farmer and farming system
Table A.1 Example of an actor linkage matrix
Table A.2 Typology of linkage and learning types
Table A.3. Typology of attitudes and practices affecting key innovation processes and relationships
Table C.1 Roles of different actors at different times
Table C.2 The role of government in supporting innovation
Table C.3 Interaction patterns in support of innovation
Figures Figure 1.1 A stylized innovation system
Figure 6.1 Development phases of agricultural innovation systems
Figure A.1 Elements of an agricultural innovation system
PrefaceThis Economic and Sector Work paper, “Enhancing Agricultural Innovation: How to Go Beyond the Strengthening of Research Systems,” was initiated as a result of the international workshop, “Development of Research Systems to Support the Changing Agricultural Sector,” organized by the Agriculture and Rural Development Department of the World Bank in June 2004 in Washington, DC. One of the main conclusions of the workshop was that “strengthened research systems may increase the supply of new knowledge and new technologies, but such strengthening may not necessarily correlate very well with the capacity to innovate and adopt innovations throughout the agricultural sector, and thereby with economic growth.” This paper uses an innovation systems perspective to explore which other interventions may be required.
The innovation systems concept is not new. It has been applied in other sectors, mainly in industry. The concept is considered to have great potential to add value to previous concepts of agricultural research systems and growth by (1) drawing attention to the totality of actors needed for innovation and growth, (2) consolidating the role of the private sector and the importance of interactions within a sector, and (3) emphasizing the outcomes of technology and knowledge generation and adoption rather than the strengthening of research systems and their outputs.
Although the innovation systems concept has raised interest within the agricultural sector, the operational aspects of the concept remain largely unexplored. At the same time, within and outside the World Bank, agricultural investment strategies have gone through a number of changes, some of which are closely related to the innovation systems concept. This paper takes stock of real-world innovation systems to assesses the usefulness of the innovation systems concept for guiding investments in agricultural technology development and economic growth.
The paper incorporates prior innovation systems work and eight new case studies of innovation systems and potential investments to support their development. The manuscript has been produced through a fruitful collaboration between the World Bank’s Agriculture and Rural Development Department, its South Asia Agriculture and Rural Development Department, and the United Nations University–Maastricht Economic and social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT).
iv v Executive Summary Investments in knowledge—especially in the form of science and technology—have featured prominently and consistently in most strategies to promote sustainable and equitable agricultural development at the national level. Although many of these investments have been successful, the context for agriculture is changing rapidly, sometimes radically.
Six changes in the context for agricultural development heighten the need to examine
how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector:
1. Markets, not production, increasingly drive agricultural development.
2. The production, trade, and consumption environment for agriculture and agricultural products is growing more dynamic and evolving in unpredictable ways.
3. Knowledge, information, and technology increasingly are generated, diffused, and applied through the private sector.
4. Exponential growth in information and communications technology has transformed the ability to take advantage of knowledge developed in other places or for other purposes.
5. The knowledge structure of the agricultural sector in many countries is changing markedly.
6. Agricultural development increasingly takes place in a globalized setting.
Can new perspectives on the sources of agricultural innovation yield practical approaches to agricultural development that may be more suited to this changing context? That is the central question explored here.
Changing approaches for supporting agricultural innovation As the context of agricultural development has evolved, ideas of what constitutes “research capacity” have evolved, along with approaches for investing in the capacity to
• In the 1980s, the “national agricultural research system” (NARS) concept focused development efforts on strengthening research supply by providing infrastructure, capacity, management, and policy support at the national level.
• In the 1990s, the “agricultural knowledge and information system” (AKIS) concept recognized that research was not the only means of generating or gaining access to knowledge. The AKIS concept still focused on research supply but gave much more attention to links between research, education, and extension and to identifying farmers’ demand for new technologies.
• More recently, attention has focused on the demand for research and technology and on the development of innovation systems, because strengthened research systems may increase the supply of new knowledge and technology, but they may not necessarily improve the capacity for innovation throughout the agricultural sector.
The innovation systems concept An innovation system can be defined as a network of organizations, enterprises, and individuals focused on bringing new products, new processes, and new forms of vi organization into economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behavior and performance. The innovation systems concept embraces not only the science suppliers but the totality and interaction of actors involved in innovation. It extends beyond the creation of knowledge to encompass the factors affecting demand for and use of knowledge in novel and useful ways.